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LAWRENCE, Baron.-English statesman, 543; life and ser

vices in India and England, 543.

Lead-poisoning from cooking-vessels, 4.
Leather-board.-Process of its manufacture, 662.

LEPÈRE, E. C. P.-French Cabinet Minister, biographical notice, 886.

LETELLIER, Lieutenant Governor.- Complications arising from his dismissal, 319.

LINDERMAN, Dr. HENRY R.-Superintendent of the United
States Mint, 543; biographical sketch, 543.
Literature, American.-Works of religion and philosophy,

544; scientific publications of the year, 544, 545; books on mechanics, 545; medical works, 545, 546; law publications, 546; philological treatises, 546; educational publications, 546, 547; literary history and criticism, 547; politics and economy, 547, 548; geography and travels, 548, 549; history, 549, 550; biographical works, 550, 551; essays, 551; poetry of the year, 551; new novels, 551, 552; translated fiction, 552, 558. Literature, British.-Philosophical works, 558; science and useful arts, 558; health primers, 555, 554; books of travel, 554; history, 554, 555; biography and memoirs, 555; recent essays, 555; poetry, 556; novels, 556. Literature, Continental.-French philosophical writings,

556; history, 556; illustrated books, 556; revival of eighteenth century immoralities, 557; German philosophy, 557; historical publications, 557; biography, 557; poetry and the drama, 558; fiction, 558; Belgian historical works, 558; philosophical and other books, 558; Dutch novelists, 558; poetry, etc., 558; Danish literature, 559; Swedish literature, 5:9; Norwegian, 559; Polish and Bohemian, 559; Hungarian, 560; Italian literature, 560; Spanish, 560; Portuguese, 561.

LI-YUNG-TSAI.-His rebellion against the Chinese Government, 143.

Lobbying.-Made a felony in California, 105; in Georgia, 421.

LOCKYER, J. NORMAN.-His theory of the compound nature of the elements, 133.

Loochoo Islands.-Annexed to Japan, 529, 530.
Louisiana.-Sessions of the Legislature, 561; a Constitution-

al Convention, 561; thanks for aid to yellow-fever suffer-
ers, 561; resolutions on the arrest of citizens for infrac-
tion of the United States election laws, 561; Governor's
letter on the same, 562; Senator elected, 562; cruelty
to animals act, 562; tax-defaulters and unequal as-
sessments, 562; a compromise with bondholders pro-
posed, 562; New Orleans teachers unpaid, 563; the State
school fund, 563; decision on the right of having separate
schools for white and black children, 563, 564; the State
Lottery to be stopped, 564; delegates to the Constitution-
al Convention elected, 564; resolution on securing equal
rights to colored citizens, 564; objection to a delegate as
a foreigner, 564; argued that the Convention could im-
pose a Constitution without the vote of the people, 565;
discussion of the State debt, 565; bonds recommend-
ed to be paid, 565; bonds recommended not to be paid,
566; report that the Legislature which passed the fund-
ing act was an illegal body, and that the constitu-
tional amendments of 1874 had not been ratified by the
people, 566; the scaling and funding of the debt held to
be illegal declared to give it no greater validity, 566;
minority report, 567; the irregularity of the bonds does
not discharge from liability for values received, 567; the
cash proceeds of the sale of the bonds, 567; decisions of
the courts pronouncing the consols a valid obligation,
568; the various departinents of the State government
have recognized the funding act, 568; the recognition of
the United States Government legalized a Legislature,
566; various propositions of readjustment, 56S, 569; the

ordinance finally adopted, 569; forfeits and interest on delinquent taxes to be remitted, 669; tax-rates ordained, 569; various provisions of the new Constitution, 570; agricultural and industrial resources of the State, 570; proportion of the State tax paid by New Orleans, 570, 571; Democratic nominations and platform, 571; Republican nominations and platform, 571; vote on the Constitution and on the debt ordinance, 572; vote for State officers, 572; commerce of New Orleans, 572; the courts can compel a municipal government to levy a tax to discharge its obligations, 572.

Lucius, Dr. ROBERT.-Prussian Minister of Agriculture, biographical notice, 740.

Lutherans.-Statistics, 578; the General Synod, 578; doctrinal questions settled by the Synodical Conference, 574; the General Council, 574; on exchanging pulpits with outsiders, 575; other questions of polity, 575.

M

MACMAHON, Duc de.-Collision with the French Cabinet, 357; his letter of resignation, 888.

MCMAHON, J. A.-Representative from Ohio, 193, 251; explains the substitute appropriation bill, 292, 298. MAGNIN, JOSEPH.-French Minister of Finance, biographical notice, 386.

Maine.-Sessions of the Legislature, 575; constitutional

amendments requiring biennial sessions and terms of office, 575; acts of the Legislature, 575; law against sugar adulteration, 575; salaries, 575; limit on town debts, 575; freight-rate equalization act, 576; fish and game preservation acts, 576; public lands given to squatters, 576; resolutions on resumption, 576; assessments to be on full valuations, 576; the Penobscot tribe, 576, 577; the Passamaquoddy Indians, 577; educational statistics, 577; demand to raise the standard of qualifications for teachers, 577; fish inspection, 578; insurance, 578; sugar-beet culture, 578; ship-building, 578; National Soldiers' Home, 578; mileage question in the Legislature, 578; construction of the liquor law, 578; reunion of the Legislature which passed the Maine law, 578; review of its operation, 579, 580; Temperance Convention, 580; National Convention and platform, 580; Republican Convention and platform, 580, 581; Democratic Convention and platform, 581; published returns of the election, 581; provisions of the Constitution on the count of votes, 582, 588; Republicans claim that the election should be counted on the face of the returns, 582; assurance of the Governor to the Republicans, 582; Governor and Council give notice that they are ready to examine the returns, 582; the Governor's vindication of his course, 582; expounds the constitutional provisions regarding elections, 588; report of sub-committee to the Council, 588, 584; returns not made up in open town-meeting illegal, 584; other reasons for casting out returns, 584; the Governor willing to submit the disputed points to the Supreme Court, 585; questions drawn up by the Governor and Council and submitted to the Court, 585; certificates issued and the Fusion Assembly meets, 585; Governor's term expired, 585; General Cnamberlain intrusted with the protection of the public property, 586; the Republicans organize a Legislature, 586; the President of the Fusion Senate claims the Governorship, 586; Chamberlain refuses to recognize his demand, 586; the Republican Legislature submits questions to the Supreme Court, 587; Chamberlain resigns his trust to the Republican Governor elect, 587.

Manitoba.-Description of the new wheat-fields of the Cana

dian northwest, 321, 822; mildness of the climate, 629. MARIA CHRISTINA.-Queen of Spain, her genealogy, 60.

Maryland.-Finances, 587; debt, 587; tax valuation, 587; disputed points settled regarding the classes of property exempt from taxation, 587; tobacco inspection, 587; public institutions, 588; education, 588; colored teachers demanded for colored schools, 589; insurance, 589; the ship-canal scheme, 589; shipping and commerce of Baltimore, 590; attempt to import beet-sugar, 590; mode of obtaining shad-fry for fish-culture, 590; artificial propagation of the oyster, 591; resolutions directed against Sunday-law enforcement, 591, 592; drinking in clubhouses not a violation, 592; loophole in the law against drunkenness, 592; question of being drunk in the streets is a common-law offense, 592; Democratic nominations and platform, 593; Tax-payers' Convention and resolutions, 593, 594; National Convention and platform, 594, 595; Republican nominations and platform, 595, 596; independent parties in Baltimore, 596; results of the election, 596.

Massachusetts.-Session of the Legislature, 596; retrenchment, 596; simplified supervision of State institutions, 596; public-school statistics, 597; offices consolidated, 597; question of biennial sessions, 597; act to secure liberty of worship to inmates of State institutions, 597; reduction of taxation, 597, 598; proposal to exempt mortgages from taxation, 598; agitation of woman suffrage, 598; act conferring suffrage for school officers upon women, 599; civil-damage act passed, 599; the convictlabor question, 600; the three systems, 600; committee report favoring the retention of the contract system, 600; convict-labor in the United States and its effects on industry, 600; act prescribing uniform ballots, 601; work of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 601; services of the Railroad Commissioners, 601; the Hoosac Tunnel, 602; the rail system of electric signaling, 602; the Harvard course for women, 602; reform in the Boston schools, 602; National nominations and platform, 602, 603; Republican nominations and platform, 603, 604; Independent Democratic nominations and platform, 604; Prohibitionist nominations and platform, 604, 605; Democratic nominations and platform, 605; election returns, 605.

Ment.-United States exports of fresh, 168. MENDONE MENG, the late King of Burmah, 99. Methodists.-Statistics, 605, 606; meeting of the Freedmen's Aid Association, 606; missionary societies, 606, 607; statistics of the Southern Church, 607; societies, 607; Wesleyan Connection, 607, 608; the new Methodist Church, 608; Canadian Methodists, 608; the British Wesleyans, 608, 609; statistics, 609; the Conference, 609; independent Methodist bodies, 609, 610. Mexico.-Members of the administration and governors, 610; the army, 610; religion, 610, 611; the new Episcopal Church, 611; finances of the republic, 611; the debt, 611, question of readjustment, 611, 612; commerce, 612; exports and imports for ten years, 612; leading commodities, 612; list of exports from Vera Cruz to the United States, 612; imports from the United States, 613; exports from Matamoros to the same, 613; do. from Mazatlan, 613; the silver crisis and commercial depression, 613, 614, the American deputation to promote commerce with Mexico, 614; interoceanic railway across Tehuantepec, 614; terms of the subsidy, 615; cable to the United States, 615; complaint of United States military orders, 615; revolutionary attempts, 615; the candidates for the next election, 615.

Michigan.-Session of the Legislature, 615; proposed con

stitutional amendments, 616; appropriations voted, 616; the Senatorial election, 616; judicial election, 616; Fusion party, 616; its convention and platform, 616; difficulty with the currency question, 616; Republican Convention

and platform, 616, 617; the election returns, 617; financial statement, 617; debt, 617; business of the Land-Office, 617, 618; cost of State institutions, 618; their aggregate expense from the foundation of the State, 618; apportionment of taxes, 618; receipts from liquor-tax, 618; insurance, 619; detailed tabulated report of Railroad Commissioners, 619; tonnage of freight by classes, 620; dividends, 620; banking statistics, 620; statistics of the lumber trade, 620; the salt product, 621; iron production, 621; crop returns for two years, 621; the University, 621; the Agricultural College, 621; Normal School, 621; school statistics, 622; public institutions, 621; criminal statistics, 623. Minnesota.-Session of the Legislature, 623; investigation of charges of cruelty to convicts, 623; rate of interest established, 623; law establishing a standard measure for wheat, 628; grading of wheat, 623, 624; Agricultural Board of Trade created, 624; inspection of insane asylums, 624; penalty for grave-robbing, 624; attempted temperance legislation, 624; various bills, 624; duties of the public examiner, 625; cession of swamp-lands to the States by Congress, 625; grants of do in Minnesota to railroads, 626; grants except for purposes of drainage and diking illegal, but only revocable by forfeiture to the United States, 626; railroad construction, 627; earnings and traffic, 627; railroad-land sales, 627; homestead law for railroad lands, 627; proceedings against timber thieves on Government lands, 627, 628; sanitary inspection of wells, 628; severe cold snap, 628; the climate of Manitoba, 628; fertility of the Canadian northwest, 629; school statistics, 629; numbered ballots unconstitutional, 629; National nominations and platform, 629, 630; Prohibition nominations and platform, 629; Republican nominations and platform, 630, 681; Democratic nominations and platform, 681; question of the eligibility of a member of the Legislature for Lieutenant-Governor, 682; returns of the election, 632. Mississippi.-Constitutional reforms demanded, 682; tax assessments, 632; school statistics, 688; improvement in agricultural methods, 633; cotton production of the United States, 638; the colored exodus, 634; effects of the emigration on cotton-planting, 634, 635; fruit-raising for the Northern market, 685; the Mississippi levees, 685; improvement of the channel, 635; navigation on the river, 635, 636; commission for the improvement of the riverbed, 636; decision under the insurance laws, 636; female notaries, 686; separate estate of a married woman, 636; appropriations from the school fund for high schools unconstitutional, 637; a scheme of spelling-reform, 687; proposed constitutional amendment, 637; the Yazoo matter, 638; election for the Legislature, 688; colored educational appropriations, 638; process for making yarn from seed-cotton, 688.

Mississippi River.-Navigation on the river. 635, 636; commission appointed by Congress for the improvement of the stream-bed, 686.

Missouri.-Session of the Legislature, 638; resolution in favor of retrenchment, 638, 639; election of United States Senator, 639; the rat bounty, 689; proposal to introduce the whipping-post, 639; failure of a compulsory education bill, 639; ladies demand woman suffrage, 639; an adulterant of white lead, 640; elections by acclamation proposed, 640; financial reform and refunding, 640; financial statements, 640; changes in the tax-laws, 641; the defaulting State Treasurer, 641; a Labor Bureau, 641; Bureau of Immigration, 641; advantages of the State for immigrants, 641; change in the insurance laws, 642; a fish bill, 642; temperance legislation, 642; a Maine law to be submitted to the people, 643; protest against adjudication in Federal courts upon local debts, 643; laws to prevent

county taxes from being levied to satisfy judgments of Federal courts, 643, 644; discussion of their constitutionality, 644; contradictory decisions thereupon, 645; conflict between the new law and decrees of the United States courts in different counties, 646; question whether crops are taxable, 646; public institutions, 646; agricultural statistics, 646. Mohammedanism.-The Mohammedan population of all countries, 647; weakness of Mohammedan states, 647; remarkable spread of the religion, 647; relation to the Eastern question, 647; danger from Moslemism in India, 648.

Money.-The world's stock of gold and silver, 162; shipments of silver to the East, 182. Montenegro.-Reigning family, 648; area and population,

648; political reforms, 648; the first Montenegrin Ministry, 648; cession of the new territory by the Porte, 648; the new frontier, 648; taking possession, 649; bloody conflicts with Albanians, 649. Moravians.-Statistics, 649; the Synod, 649; the leading doctrines, 650.

MORGAN, JOHN T.-Senator from Alabama, 198, 249; speech on bill to regulate the count of the Presidential vote, 212214.

Mormons.-Diplomatic circular on preventing Mormon immigration, 837.

MURCHISON, Dr. CHARLES.-British pathologist, 650; life and works, 650, 651.

N

Navigation. Decline of the American ocean carrying-trade, 887, 838; proposed legislation for encouraging shipbuilding, 888; United States tonnage in 1879, 869. Nebraska.-Session of the Legislature, 651; game law, 651; failure of prohibition bill, 651; judicial election, 652; Democratic nominations and platform, 652; Republican nominations and platform, 652; results of the election, 652; valuation and assessments, 652; appropriations, 658; State institutions, 653; crop reports, 658; extermination of grasshoppers, 653; cattle-drives, 659; Poncas released from military custody on habeas corpus, 653 their arbitrary removal to Indian Territory, 654; return to their reservation, 654; seized by the military, 654; the proceedings for their release, 654; findings of the court, 655.

;

Nepaul.-Relations with China, 143, Netherlands.-Royal family, 655; area and population, 655; revenue and expenditures, 655; debt statement, 655; army and navy, 656; navigation, 656; railroads, telegraphs, and post-offices, 656; imports and exports by countries, 656; population of colonies, 656; their finances, 656; their commerce, 656; their railroads, 656; changes in the Cabinet, 656; ministerial crisis, 657; new Ministry, 657 extending the defenses, 657; sessions of the Chambers, 657; free trade to be preserved, 657; royal marriage, 657.

Nerada.-Session of the Legislature, 657; election of Sena

tor, 657; legislation on the debt and taxation, 657; on regulating railroad rates, 657; statistics of silver-mining, 658; drainage of the mines by the Sutro Tunnel, 658; the nut-pine tree, 658.

New Hampshire.-Senator appointed by the Governor objected to, 659; session of the Legislature, 659; Senator elected, 659; State officers elected by the Legislature, 659; resolution upon the veto of the army bill, 659; factory act for children, 659; act to assume claims of citizens against repudiating States, 659; railroad act not passed, 660; correction of the Revised Statutes, 660; finances, 660; valuation and taxes, 660; debt, 660; act

requiring a sworn inventory of taxable property, 660; savings-banks statistics, 661; insurance, 661; State institutions, 661; the manufacture of artificial leather, 662. New Jersey.-Sessions of the Legislature, 662; a special Tax Commission created, 662; the Commissioners, 662; their duties, 662; commission to prepare a system of laws for cities, 662; its duties, 662, 663; industrial education adopted, 668; manner of the same, 663; tramp act, 668; investigation of local expenditures on complaint of freeholders authorized, 668; party dissensions on districting the State, 668; judges nominated by the Governor under a recent amendment, 663; his letter on a non-partisan judiciary, 664; committee reports on the subject, 664, 665; bill to prohibit the manufacture of shoes in the State Prison, 665; record of the contracts, 666; statistics of prison shoe-making, 666, 667; commission to inquire into the subject, 667; Sunday-law agitation in Newark, 667; resolutions of an association for opposing the en forcement of the laws, 667; legal definition of a disorderly house, 667; cattle-quarantine, 668; efforts to improve the training of the militia, 668; mode of rifle-practice, 668, fish-culture, 668; the black bass, 668; convictions under the fish-preservation act, 669; bankrupt cities, 669; a railroad manager in favor of national railroad regulation, 669, 670; newspaper statistics, 670; insurance, 670; savings-banks, 670; cranberry-crop, 670; the oak and pine districts, 670; salubrity of the white-oak bottoms, 670.

New York.-Session of the Legislature, 671; the new Capitol, 671; election of a Senator, 671; protest on the ground that the State is not properly districted, 671; inequalities of the present division, 671, 672; bill to equalize representation, 672; objections of the Governor to the apportionment, 672; act altering the rate of interest, 672; proposed law taxing mortgages, 672; total valuation and expenses of State charities, 673; insane paupers, 678; propositions for the financial control of charitable institutions, 678; cost of maintenance per capita in the different insane asylums of the country, 674; reasons advanced for establishing a female reformatory, 674; comparative cost of prisons under the new and under the old system, 674; financial benefits of the new system of canal management, 675; tramp act, 675; a case of false conviction repaired by a money award, 675, 676; the State is not liable for prospective profits in a breach of contract suit, 676, 677; the district system of common schools and its proposed alteration, 677; railroad statistics, 677; persons who have pecuniary relations with a savings-bank should not be admitted into the management, 678; insurance statistics, 678; discrimination against New York in freight-rates charged, 678; towns obliged to pay their bonds, however given, 678; National nominations and platform. 678, 679; Republican nominations and platform, 679; Democratic Convention and platform, 680; announcement of the withdrawal of the Tammany delegates, 680; retirement of the New York delegation, 681; nominations of the Convention, 681; resolutions on the secession of Tammany, 681; organization of the Tammany Hall delegation and nomination of an independent candidate for Governor, 681; results of the election, 681. Nihilists.-Origin and application of the term, 681, 682; earlier revolutionary movements and leaders, 682; causes and elements of discontent, 682; discovery of Nihilist conspiracies, 682; violence and assassination, 682, 683; utterances of the revolutionary press, 688; influence of materialistic literature, 683; the great number of unclassed students in the movement, 688; sentiments of the party, 683, 684; the secret organization, 684; its propaganda and organs, 684; present purposes, 684; menaces toward the Czar, 684; list of grievances, 655; new organ

and fresh attempt against the life of the Czar, 685; later acts, 778.

presents a petition and speaks on the bill to restrict Chinese immigation, 220-222.

NORDENSKJÖLD.-His voyage through the Siberian seas and Papuans.-Their character and customs, 408-410.
Behring Strait, 411-417.

North Carolina.-Session of the Legislature, 685; simplified
form of land conveyances, 685; tramp act, 686; changes
in taxation, 686; act to legitimate children of colored
people cohabiting as man and wife, 686; act constituting
court clerks commissioners of deeds, 686; statement of
the State debt, 686; act to scale the debt, 686; proposed
reductions, 686, 687; acceptance of the compromise by
bondholders, 637; supplementary refunding acts, 687;
convict-labor authorized on internal improvements, 688;
penalty for abduction of children, 688; pension for
maimed Confederate soldiers, 688; law requiring outside
insurance companies to deposit securities, 688; inebriate
and
law, 688; question whether the presiding officers may
must sign an enacted bill after adjournment, 688; deci-
sions on the question, 689; school statistics, 689; the
Governor elected a Senator, 689; sketch of his successor,
690; act for the redemption of lands sold for taxes, 690;
act defining consanguinity, 690; fish-culture, 690; judi-
cial election, 690; the harvest, 690; extent and value of
the forests, 691; the rich valleys, 691; geographical de-
scription of the State, 691; its resources, 691.
Nut-Pine.-Account of the tree and its utility, 658.
NYOUNG YAN.-Burmese Prince, 100, 101.

Obituaries, American (arranged in alphabetical order), 692-
697.

Obituaries, Foreign (in alphabetical arrangement), 697–702.
Ohio.-Debt statement, 702; revenue and expenditure, 702;

taxes and valuation, 702; agricultural statistics, 702;
live-stock, 703; text of proposed amendments to the
Constitution, 708; rejected by popular vote, 708; Repub-
lican nominations and platform, 703, 704; Democratic
nominations and platform, 704; National nominations
and platform, 705; results of the election, 705.
Old Catholics.-Synod at Bonn, 705; relaxation of the move-
ment, 705, 706; Swiss Synod, 706; first Austrian Synod,
706; list of reforms advocated by Old Catholics, 706; a
body organized in France, 706.

Opium.-Import into China, 142.

Oregon.-Growth of population since 1868, 706, 707; increase in grain exports, 707; increase in shipping, 707; growth of commerce, 708; advance in the price of land, 708, 709; the canned-salmon trade, 709; agricultural progress, 709, 710; stock-growing, 710; manufacturing establishments and ship-building, 710; coal-mines, 711; railroads, 711; accumulation of capital, 711; diminished gold and silver shipments, 711; public buildings, 711; the crops of 1879, 711; salmon shipments in 1879, 711; religious statistics, 711; educational statistics, 711, 712; opposition to high schools, 712; recent enlargement of the rights of women, 712; a law forbidding the employment of Chinese laborers on street works decided void, 712.

Oxygen in the Sun.-Discovery of oxygen in the solar spectrum announced by Professor Draper, 130; his method of investigation, 181.

Oyster.-Observations on embryological development of the,

591.

P

PACKER, ASA.-An American financier, 712; early life, 712;
canal-boatman, 712; contractor, 713; starts the Lehigh
Valley Railroad, 713; his great wealth, 713; political ca-
reer, 718; founds the Lehigh University, 713.
PAGE, HORACE F.-Representative from California, 193, 250;

PARNELL, CHARLES STEWART.-His agitation in Ireland, 458. Pennsylvania.-Session of the Legislature, 713; the Governor recommends the arbitration system of settling labor disputes, 714; Senator elected, 714; bill to encourage tree-planting in highways, 714; bill to regulate municipal governments proposed, 714; failure of an eight-hour bill, 714; bill proposed for restraining the adulteration of liquor, 714; bill to relieve observers of seventh day from the operation of Sunday laws failed to pass, 715; bill allowing women to become officers in charitable corporations, 715; tramp act, 715; bill to regulate the trucksystem vetoed, 715; fiscal deficit, 715; provisions of an act for the valuation and taxation of corporation property, 715, 716; stringent precautions against avoidance of taxes, 716; application to different kinds of companies, 716; proposed appropriation to indemnify the owners of property destroyed in the riots, 717; objections urged against the bill, 717, 718; charge of corruption made in the debate, 718; investigation of the charges, 718; log-rolling, 718; members reported guilty of corrupt practices, 718; motion to expel, 718; resolutions advocating industrial education, 719; disappointing results of the State Agricultural College, 719; railroad-freight discrimination, 719, oil monopoly, 719; the seaboard pipe line, 720; railroad statistics, 720; a defaulting city, 720; held that a municipality needs no legislative authorization to make a debt, 720; legal opinion that city bonds are not subject to the law of negotiable paper, 721; the responsibility of a municipality for the dangerous condition of its streets, 721; a sectarian asylum liable to taxation, 721; Temperance Political Convention, 721; National Convention and platform, 722; Democratic Convention and platform, 722; minority resolutions, 728; Republican Convention and platform, 723; returns of the election for State Treasurer and the Legislature, 723.

PERKINS, SAMUEL E.-An American Judge, 723; life and career, 728, 724.

Persia.-Reigning family, 724; statistics, 724; Persia's relation to the Eastern question, 724; her military resources, 724; the state of trade, 724.

Peru.-Members of the Prado Government, 725; the Cabinet
formed by La Puerta, 725; Piérola Government, 725;
destruction of the navy, 725; finances, 725; the debt,
725; terms of compromise offered by bondholders, 725,
726; commercial statistics, 726; trade through Callao
with the United States, 726; total exports by commodi-
ties, 726; statistics of the export trade in cubic niter,
726; origin of the war with Chili, 727; seizure of Anto-
fagasta, 727: allied Peruvians and Bolivians blockade
Iquique, 727; sinking of the Esmeralda, 727; capture of
Pisagua, 727; the allies defeated at San Francisco, 727;
Chilian defeat at Tarapacá, 727; flight of Prado, 727; the
brave defense and capture of the Huáscar, 727: Peruvian
ports blockaded, 728; Piérola assumes the dictatorship,
729; change of generals, 728.

PINTO, SERPA.-Portuguese explorer, his journey through
Central Africa, 405–408.

Plague, The.-The plague in Astrakhan, 728: terrible nature
of former epidemics, 728; the black death and the other
visitations of the plague in Europe, 728; the plague in
the East. 728; sanitary neglect in Persia and Asiatic
Turkey, 728; conjectures as to its transmission to Astra-
khan, 729; the outbreak at Wetlianka, 729; the spread
to other places, 729; stringent sanitary measures, 780;
its cessation, 730; quarantine against Russia, 780; the
form which it took in Astrakhan, 730; description of the
symptoms, 780.

PORTER, General FITZ JOHN.-Case of, 49. Portugal. The royal family, 780; area and population, 731; revenue and expenditures, 781; debt, 781; army and navy, 781; commerce with principal nations, 781; shipping and navigation, 781; telegraphs and railways, 781; postal statistics, 781; Parliamentary session, 781; English alliance in colonial affairs, 781; trouble with the natives in Guinea, 781; treaty with England for suppressing the slave-trade, 781.

PRADO, MARIANO IGNACIO.-Peruvian General, 781; biographical sketch, 781.

PRAZAK, Dr. A.-Austrian Minister, 60. Presbyterians.-Presbyterian Church in the United States of America: Statistics, 731; amounts of the trust-funds, 781; investment of do., 781; the General Assembly, 781, 732; rules for forming presbyteries in missionary fields, 782; validity of Roman Catholic baptism, 782. Presbyterian Church in the United States: Statistics, 783; the General Assembly, 733, 734; the disciplinary question of worldly amusements, 734. United Presbyterian Church of North America: Statistics, 784; the General Assembly, 784; questions of discipline and government, 735. Cumberland Presbyterian Church: Statistics, 785; the General Assembly, 735. Canadian Presbyterian Church: Statistics, 735. Presbyterian Church of England: Statistics, 785; the Synod, 735. Established Church of Scotland: Statistics, 785; the General Assembly, 785. Free Church of Scotland: The General Assembly, 786; heresy trial for denying the authenticity of Deuteronomy, 786. United Presbyterian Church of Scotland: Statistics, 786; the Synod, 787; trial for the denial of the doctrine of future punishment, 737. Irish Presbyterian Church: Statistics, 788; General Assembly, 738.

Prison Labor.-System of leasing convicts in Georgia, 437;

statistics on prison labor in the United States, collected by the Massachusetts Labor Bureau, 600; discussion of a bill to prohibit shoe-manufacturing in the New Jersey State Prison, 665; statistics of the manufacture in prisons in the United States, 666, 667; law in North Carolina, 688. Protection.-In Canada, 317, 318; in Germany, summary of the new tariff, 180, 181; debates on it. 487, 438. Protestant Episcopal Church.-Statistics, 788; election and consecration of bishops, 789; meetings of missionary societies, 739; the Church Congress, 788. Prussia.-The Ministry, 740; resignation of Liberals and appointment of Conservative ministers, 740; notices of the new ministers, 740; retirement of the Minister of Justice, 740; notice of his successor, 740; area and population, 740; receipts and expenditures, 741; the debt, 741; the Diet, 741; speech from the throne, 741; the budget, 742; debate on the purchase of railroads, 742; the railroad bill passed, 742; the General Synod, 742; the synodal organization of the Church, 742. Provisions.-International trade in food-products, 167, 168. Public Documents.-Statement of the facts of the Maine

election presented to the Supreme Court of Maine by the Republican Legislature, 743; statement of the facts relating to the organization of rival Legislatures, 743, 744; answers of the Supreme Court to questions submitted to it, 745-747.

Public Lands.-Bill to grant swamp and overflowed lands in Florida to railroads vetoed, 873; account of the lands, 878, 374.

PUTTKAMMER, ROBERT VICTOR VON.-Prussian Minister of Worship, biographical notice, 740.

R

Railroads.-Progress of the Canada Pacific Railway, 820, 821; the Guatemala railroad, 463, 464; interoceanic railway across Tehuantepec, 614, 615.

Railroads, Legislative Regulation of.-In Delaware, 308, 809; in Georgia, 420; of sleeping-car companies in Illi nois, 485; railroad taxation in Illinois, 481, 482; the Railroad Commission in Illinois, 488, 4:4; Kansas legislation, 535, 536; the Massachusetts Commissioners, 601, 602; law in North Carolina, 689; the question in Pennsylvania, 719, 720; constitutionality of the Thurman act, 836. Railroad War.--Contests between the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé, and Denver and Colorado companies, 158160.

RAMSEY, ALEXANDER.-United States Secretary of War, 834; biographical notice, 884.

RANDALL, SAMUEL J.-Speaker of the House of Representstives, 750; biographical sketch, 750, 751; adjournment speech to the House of Representatives, 247, 248. Reformed Churches.-Reformed Church in America: Statistics, 749; session of the Synod, 749. Reformed Church in the United States: Statistics, 749; framing of a declaration of faith, 749; the essential points, 749; articles agreed on, 749, 750. Reformed Church of France: Adherence to tha Confession of Faith adopted in 1872, 750; organization of a regular synodal government postponed, 750.

Reformed Episcopal Church-Statistics, 750, 751; the General Council, 751; action relating to the division in the English Church, 751; session of the English General Synod, 751; secession and organization of a Reformed Church in Canada, 751.

Refunding the National Debt.-Former efforts to consulidate the debt of the United States Government, 751, 752; the state of the debt in 1789, 752; adoption of Hamilton's proposition in 1790, 752; the amounts of the foreign loans issued under the act, 752; mode of settlement of the domestic debt, 752, 758; loans issued, 758; the State debts assumed, 758; market value of new loans prior to 1795 (funding act of 1795),753; redemption of the foreign debt, 754; state of the debt in 1806, 754; mode of readjustment adopted in 1807, 754; the refunding operation of that year, 754; new loan and conversion of the old six per cents in 1812, 754; provisions of the act, 755; attempt to refund at 5 per cent. in 1822, 755; basis of the operation, 755; amount subscribed, 755; financial situation and proposal of redemption in 1823, 756; 4 per cent. refunding loan of 1824, 756; state of the debt in 1825, 756; refunding act of 1825, 757; failure of the operation, 757; extinction of the old debt, 757; the Mexican war debt, 757; the contraction of the present debt, 757; the debt at its highest point, 757: partial conversion, 757; act to strengthen the public credit passed in 1869, 757; refunding act of 1870, 757; text of the act, 757, 758; amendment of 1871, 758; statement of the debt in 1871, 758; table showing the market quotations of the different loans for the ten years before resumption, 759; 5 per cent. refunding loan of 1871, 760; plan of the operation, 760; transactions under the act in America and in Europe, 760; contract with a syndicate for the sale of 4 per cents, 761; placing of the 4 per cent. loan in 1877, 761; unfavorable effects of inflation agitation and silver remonetization, 761; effect of resumption on refunding transactions, 761; act for exchanging new bonds for six per cents, 761; ten-dollar certificates, 761, 762; the sales stopped after the conversion of the five-twenty bonds, 762; subsequent issues, 762: statement of the sales of the certificates, 762; tabular view of the refunding transactions, 762; reduction in the interest charge, 763.

Representation.-Senatorial debate on the comparative, 194

201.

Resumption of Specie Payments.-The suspension of specie payments, 763; Treasury notes replace coin in the circu

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