« AnteriorContinuar »
word in these articles carries the weight of the authority of men who are best qualified and best entitled to speak upon these important institutions and achievements of the national Government-who themselves were magna pars in their development. The historical account of the marine hospitals is from the pen of Surgeon-General Dr. John B. Hamilton, the head of the service. The clear and full exposition of the workings of the Meteorological Division of the Signal Service was prepared under the supervision of General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal Officer. The succinct but complete expositions of the great fiscal achievements of refunding and resumption have for their author J. K. Upton, the present Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
The "Cyclopædia" is as full as ever of religious information. In EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE the acts of that association are recounted; in BRAHMO SOMAJ the reform movement among the Brahmans is explained; and a review of each Church is given under the name of the denomination.
The political history and statistical survey of the different nations of the earth are as complete as in former years. The Ferry laws in France, the tariff reform in Germany, and the leading questions and legislative results in other countries are amply discussed. The Nihilistic troubles are recounted and explained in RUSSIA and NIHILISM. The origin and events of the war in Zoolooland are described in CAPE COLONY, and the rise and growth of the Zooloo nation in ZooLoos; the history of the South American war is narrated in BOLIVIA and PERU; of the Afghan war, in AFGHANISTAN and INDIA; of the Russian expedition into Turkistan, in RUSSIA; of the Burmese horrors, in BURMAH. IN EGYPT the developments of the debt question and the deposition of the Khedive are related. The visitation of the plague in Russia is given in PLAGUE, and a description of the Isthmus Canal scheme and of the various plans and routes in INTEROCEANIC CANAL. The newly erected autonomous states in Turkey are described in BULGARIA and EASTERN ROUMELIA, and sketches of their rulers under their names. This volume is behind none of its predecessors in the department of biography.
The articles on COMMERCE and the commercial statistics presented under the several countries afford a survey of the trade of all nations, and a mass of information upon commerce and industry which can hardly be found elsewhere.
Besides the customary comprehensive scientific articles, there are special ores on the more prominent subjects of recent research and discovery. The article on GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION is more detailed than usual; the portion relating to Arctic discovery is a valuable contribution from the pen of Captain Howgate.
With the unusually profuse illustrations of this volume it is hoped that nowhere will be felt the want of a map, a diagram, or a drawing which would make the text clearer. There are steel portraits of President Grévy of the French Republic, Speaker Randall, and Secretary Sherman. A glance through the index will show that the present volume is not merely a larger, but that it is a fuller book than usual. As indicated above, uncommon pains have been taken to render the "Annual Cyclopædia,” as far as possible, rounder and more cyclopædic in character.
ABD-EL-KADER (properly SIDI EL-HADJI ABD EL-KADER ULED MAHIDDIN), a distinguished Arab chief, and one of the most prominent representatives of Mohammedanism in the nineteenth century; born near Mascara in Algeria about 1807, died in Damascus in November, 1879. By a pilgrimage to Mecca, which he made together with his father, who was a marabout (Arab seer), as well as by his studies at the University of Fez, he gained a reputation for piety and the title el-Hadji, the pilgrim. The conquest of Algeria by the French, however, made of the future priest a warrior. Upon the recommendation of his father the people elected him Ameer of Mascara, and he soon, by his perseverance, indomitable courage, and patriotism, gained the love and confidence of the Kabyles to a high degree. In 1832 and 1833 he was engaged in a war with France, and, although repeatedly defeated, finally compelled the French to conclude the treaty of February 26, 1834, by which his sovereignty was acknowledged, and he was permitted to buy arms in France. He next subjugated the native tribes, extending his authority over the entire provinces of Titeri and Oran. In the following year he again waged war against the French, defeating General Trézel on the Makta, June 28, 1835, and General d'Arlanges on the Tafua, April 25, 1836; and he continued his guerrilla struggle with such success that the French, who were then contemplating the capture of Constantine, in order to gain time for this undertaking, made another treaty with him on May 30, 1837, in which they recognized his authority under the nominal sovereignty of France, and by which he was intrusted with the administration of the provinces of Oran, Titeri, and Algeria, with the exception of the capitals and the Metidja of Algiers. In 1839 he renewed the war against France; but this time the French were more successful, so that in 1842 he was compelled to seek refuge in Morocco. Abd-er-Raham, the Sultan of Morocco, received him; but, beVOL. XIX.-1 A
fore the Sultan had made up his mind what to do, he had involved Morocco in a war with France, which was short and decisive. In the battle of Isly, August 14, 1844, the Moors were completely defeated, and, fearing Abd-el-Kader's influence in Morocco, the Sultan concluded peace with France, and Abd-el-Kader was again a fugitive. Stirring up revolt in Morocco itself, he defeated the troops of the Sultan in several battles. The power against him was too strong, however, and on December 21, 1847, he was forced to enter French territory, and on the following day surrendered to General Lamoricière. The General promised to send him to Egypt or to Syria, and the Duke d'Aumale confirmed this promise. This pledge was broken by the Government of Louis Philippe, and he was retained in captivity for many years. President Louis Napoleon, however, released him in 1852, after he had sworn on the Koran not to oppose the French rule in Africa. He then took up his abode in Brussa, and afterward in Damascus, where he exerted himself strongly in favor of the Christians at the time of the Syrian massacres of 1860, for which he received the grand cross of the Legion of Honor. Louis Napoleon allowed him a pension of 100,000 francs, which was reduced in 1879. He visited the Paris Exposition and England in 1867, and in 1870 offered his services to France against Germany. In 1871 Abd-el-Kader submitted to the Government of Thiers some suggestions relative to reforms in the administration of Algeria. Since that time but little has been heard of him. He was known to live a retired life in Damascus, devoting his time to religious duties, the education of his children, and literary pursuits. Though one of the boldest, bravest, and most intrepid defenders of decaying Mohammedanism against the victorious advance of Christian nations, Abd-el-Kader was by no means an obstinate opponent of modern civilization, but showed an eagerness to learn from his victors. Ever since 1852 he was on the best terms with
France; he became an advocate of the principle of religious toleration, and joined the order of Freemasonry. He did not renounce polygamy, but in his retirement at Damascus had three wives. Most of his numerous children died before their father, and one of his daughters became a Christian. A religio-philosophical work, which he wrote in Arabic in his retirement, was well received, and translated by Dugat into French under the title "Rappel à l'Intelligent, Avis à l'Indifférent" (Paris, 1858).
Special works on Abd-el-Kader have been published by Laménaire, "Vie, Aventures, Combats et Prise d'Abd-el-Kader (Paris, 1848), and Bellemare, "Abd-el-Kader Sa Vie Politique et Militaire " (Paris, 1863).
ABYSSINIA,* a country of Eastern Africa, the boundaries of which continue to be unsettled. The area of Abyssinia proper, which was formerly said to comprise the three important states of Tigré, Amhara, and Shoa, is estimated by Behm and Wagner (“Bevölkerung der Erde," vol. v.) at about 158,000 square miles; the population is believed to be from 3,000,000 to 5,000,000. The larger portion of this country is governed by King John (formerly known as Prince Kassai), while Shoa is under the government of King Menelek. The son of the late King Theodore, Prince Almayoo, who after the death of his father was sent to England to receive there a careful education, died at Leeds on November 24, 1879.
As the King of Abyssinia lays claim to large territories which have of late been annexed to Egypt, especially the port of Massowa, the two countries have been for years on unfriendly terms. In 1879 the Government of Egypt sent Gordon Pasha on a special mission to King John to settle the pending difficulties peaceably. The King refused to accept the propositions made by Gordon Pasha, and threatened to invade Egypt. (See EGYPT.)
An Egyptian functionary, Zobir Pasha, who was ruler of Darfoor before the annexation of this country to Egypt, gave in September to an American writer the following account of the situation of affairs in Abyssinia:
King John has now reduced to obedience his two vassal kings, Menelek and Wold-Mikail. The King knows well that by order of the Sultan at Constantinople the Egyptian army is reduced to 18,000 men. The King knows also that Gordon Pasha has left Cairo with papers from England and France forbidding Abyssinia to make war with Egypt. But will not England and France also prevent Egypt from going to war with Abyssinia? Munzinger Pasha stole for Egypt the country of the Bogos. King John then took back by force a part of this territory. Ismail Pasha then sent three expeditions against Abyssinia. The first, commanded by Munzinger Pasha and consisting of 2,000 men, was annihilated by King John, and Munzinger himself killed. The second, consist ing of 1,800 men, shared a like fate, and its commander, Colonel Arendrup, was killed, together with Count Zichy and Arakel Bey, the son-in-law of Nubar Pasha.
See" Annual Cyclopædia" of 1877, art. ABYSSINIA. On the former history of King John, see "Annual Cyclopædia" of 1878 and 1875.
The third expedition, consisting of over 20,000 men, magnificently equipped and provided with a large European and American staff, was also defeated and driven from the land. Soon after the defeat of this third Egyptian army, Menelek, King of the Shoa country, broke out into revolt in the south, and was aided by King Wold-Mikail in the north. King John hastened to put down these formidable revolts, and in the mean time the Egyptians stole back again the Bogos country. But now Menelek and Wold-Mikail are friends with King John, and have taken wives from his family; and, mark well my words, King John will get back the Bogos country (a fertile district on the north and northwest frontiers of Abyssinia) by fair means or by foul, or he will perish in the attempt. Who will prevent him? Egypt can not, and King John does not believe that England and France will go to war with him to prevent his taking back from Egypt what rightly belongs to him.
King Menelck of Shoa, the southern part of Abyssinia, in August informed the British Anti-Slavery Society that he had abolished the slave-trade throughout his dominions. In December the relations between Menelek and the King of Abyssinia were reported to be critical, because Menelek has failed to pay his annual tribute.
ADULTERATION. The Governments of Germany, Belgium, and other European countries have in recent years taken active steps to suppress adulteration and the use of deleterious substances, more particularly in foods or in articles where a direct noxious effect upon the public health results. In Great Britain the health authorities are empowered to suppress the sale of articles of food containing injurious ingredients. In the different American States special acts have been passed relative to debased or adulterated food articles. In the State of New York dealers in artificial butter are compelled to label it as such, and strict measures have been taken to put a stop to the adulteration or reduction of milk. No general laws have been enacted, however, to suppress the debasement or falsification of commercial commodities, or even of food products, a kind of fraud to which the larger portion of the mercantile community are themselves unwilling parties. This subject has been called to the attention of the public frequently of late by chemists, microscopists, and physicians; but the deadly effects of some of the materials from which articles of daily use are manufactured, and the extent to which the adulteration of foods, beverages, and medicines is carried on, according to the testimony of expert analysts, is hardly conceived of by the general public. Dr. Kedzie, President of the State Board of Health of Michigan, has officially warned the people of that State of two Very dangerous sources of disease and death in the reckless employment of poisonous materials in manufactures-arsenic to color wallpapers and to dye clothing materials, and lead in the sheet-tin of which cheap cooking vessels are made. In the report of the Canadian Commissioners of Inland Revenue for 1877 it is stated that out of 180 specimens of groceries 93 were found by analysis to be adulterated.
In the report of the Massachusetts Board of Health for 1874 the most common adulterations were enumerated. George T. Angell, who read a paper on the subject of adulterations and poisonous materials before the Social Science Association at Saratoga, was informed by an eminent physician of Boston that patients frequently die because the prescriptions are made up of adulterated drugs and fail of their effect; and a large wholesale dealer and a retail druggist of the same city stated to him that the adulteration of medicines is so universal that no profits could be made on the sale of pure articles.
Nearly all groceries are adulterated very commonly in the United States. Teas are not only frequently adulterated before they arrive in America, but are colored and faced by the admixture of poisonous substances in the United States, large factories existing for this purpose in New York and Philadelphia: one of the processes involves the use of prussic acid; the commonest coloring materials and adulterants employed are arseniate of copper, verdigris, mineral-green, Prussian blue, talc, clay, and soapstone. In England the sale and even the landing of adulterated teas are now stringently prevented. The exclusion of adulterated China teas from the English market naturally causes their importation into the United States to increase. The Japan teas as they are prepared for the retail trade are said to be quite as frequently adulterated and artificially colored as the others. A great number of substances are used to adulterate the coffee which is purchased in a ground state: pea-flour colored with Venetian red is often used; but the commonest adulterant is chiccory, which is itself almost invariably debased by the admixture of various articles, some of them of a highly injurious character. A machine has been invented and is used for molding spurious coffee-berries out of an artificial paste. The article called essence of coffee is composed of various coloring materials. The adulteration of sirups and sugars with glucose is a practice which has recently spread alarmingly. The extensive use of glucose, or the grape-sugar of commerce, is held to be the main origin of Bright's disease of the kidneys, and the cause of the present prevalence of that fatal malady. The importations of glucose increased tenfold between 1875 and 1877, and at the same time extensive factories were established for its manufacture in the Western States. The article sold as grapesugar is manufactured by boiling corn-starch with sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), and mixing the product with lime. A portion of the sulphuric acid, and sometimes copperas, sulphate of lime, and other noxious principles, remain in the glucose. In the analysis of seventeen samples of table sirup by Dr. Kedzie, fifteen were found to be made of glucose, one of them containing 141 grains of oil of vitriol and 724 grains of lime to the gallon, and one from a lot which had sickened a whole family con
tained 72 grains of vitriol, 28 of sulphate of iron (copperas), and 363 of lime to the gallon. The cheap sugars sold in Michigan are stated on the same authority to be adulterated and colored with poisonous substances. Analyses of the sugar sold in New York reveal the presence not only of glucose with its inherent poisons, but of muriate of tin, a formidable poison which is employed in the bleaching process. Mr. Fuller, a retired importer of sugar, called the attention of the United States Board of Trade, in their meeting held at New York in November, 1878, to the dangerous adulterations practiced with sugar, honey, and molasGlucose is largely used also to adulterate maple-sugar, candies, jellies, honey, and other sweet foods. Ground stone is undoubtedly used to adulterate sugar and other groceries. It is said that mills are in operation in various parts of the United States in which white stone is ground into dust of varying fineness, which is classified into the soda grade, the sugar grade, and the flour grade. A practice which is now exceedingly common, and is being rigorously suppressed in Great Britain, is the use of alum in bread. The various baking-powders sold now are said to be largely composed of alum, the price of which is less than 3 cents per pound, while cream of tartar costs 30 cents or more. The effects of alum used in this way are colic, constipation, heart-burn, and dyspepsia. The New York chemist, Dr. Henry Mott, Jr., on analyzing sixteen different powders, found alum a very considerable ingredient in every one; some of them contained also terra alba, insoluble phosphate of lime, and other foreign substances. The cream of tartar sold in the shops is seldom found to contain more than 30 per cent. of genuine cream of tartar. It is principally adulterated with terra alba, which produces destructive effects on the stomach and kidneys. Of the milk sold in the larger American cities, 90 to 95 per cent. is said to be reduced with water. This water is supposed to frequently contain the germs of malarial infection, or to be frequently impregnated with lead-poison, and therefore to be a very common cause of infant mortality. The lactometer and creamometer are said to be entirely inefficient to detect adulteration. Cream is made with gums and white glue; and the consistency, taste, and color of watered milk are restored with flour, starch, gum, sugar, carbonate of soda, and the brains of animals. Oleomargarine, which is now extensively manufactured from animal fats as a substitute for butter, is dreaded as a vehicle for infecting the human system with trichinæ and other internal parasites. The fat is not subjected to a higher temperature than 120° F. John Michels, a New York chemist, states that the refuse fat of one pork-packing establishment is to his knowledge sent to the artificial butter factories; and Professor Church found in oleomargarine horse-fat, fat from bones, and waste fat, such as is ordinarily used in making can
dles. The precautions against the sale of the meat of diseased animals are declared to be anything but sufficient. The adulterations of wines and liquors have often been exposed to the public: coarse rums, potato spirits, and not infrequently wood alcohol, are used as the foundation of liquors and wines; sulphuric acid is employed in the manufacture of port, sherry, and madeira wines, and of pale malt. At least half of the vinegar sold in the cities is said to contain active poisons: preparations of lead, copper, and sulphuric acid are used in its manufacture. Confectionery is colored with poisonous materials, to which more than once the attention of the public has been directed cochineal, red lead, and bichromate of lead are used to produce the red and pink colors; chromate of lead, gamboge, turmeric, and Naples yellow to color yellow; litmus, indigo, Prussian blue, carbonate of copper, and other colors for the blues; acetate of copper, arseniate of copper, emerald-green, Scheele's green, and Brunswick green for the green shades; while weight is imparted by terra alba, chalk, and such substances. Soap is often colored with irritating skin-poisons. Olive oil is one of the most universally adulterated articles, and is most frequently made of oil extracted from hemp, rape, cotton, or mustard seed, or from the peanut. Bright green pickles, colored as they are with acetate of copper, have been the cause of frequent cases of poisoning. Mustard is almost never pure. The different pungent table sauces are often flavored with noxious chemicals. Cayenne pepper is adulterated with cinnabar, vermilion, and sulphuret of copper, and colored with red lead and Venetian red. Cocoa is weighted with sulphate or carbonate of lime, and colored with red lead, vermilion, and ocher.
The most insidious and deadly results of the reckless use of poisons in manufactures probably arise from the extensive use of arsenic for colors and dyes, and the use of lead in foodvessels. The amount of arsenic imported into the United States every year would furnish deadly doses enough to kill six times as many human beings as make up the present population of the earth. It is sold in the market at 1 to 2 cents a pound, and is handled like coal or stone. This terrible mineral furnishes the color for innumerable articles of every-day use -lamp-shades, fancy wrapping papers, tickets, artificial flowers, dried grasses, eye-shades-so that in nearly every house and every room the fine particles of this poison are floating in the air, finding their way into the human system, and producing their sickening and debilitating effects. Various materials of clothing-dressgoods, veils, sewing-silks, stockings, gentlemen's underwear, gloves, linings of hats and of boots and shoes-are colored with arsenic. Professor Nichols of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found 8 grains of arsenic in every square foot of a ladies' dress pattern; 10 grains have been detected in a single artifi
cial flower. A veil thrown over the crib of an infant recently caused its death; gentlemen have been severely poisoned by the arsenic contained in their underclothing. Arsenic has been found in toilet powders and in candles, and is used to color all sorts of fabrics. But the most extensive and most injurious application of the destructive agent is to color wallpapers. A great variety of colors-green, blue, red, yellow, and all their shades-are produced and employed on all grades and styles of paperhangings. A book exhibiting 75 specimens of arsenic-containing wall-papers, to which the impressive title of "Shadows from the Walls of Death" was given, was published and distributed by the Board of Health of Michigan to warn the people against the use of such papers. A great number of deaths and innumerable cases of poisoning are supposed to have resulted from such poisonous wall-hangings. The arsenical papers, it is stated, are for sale in every town and village in the State. The citizens are advised to buy no paper without having it first tested for arsenic, and, in case their walls are already covered with poisonous hangings which can not easily be removed, to coat them with varnish as affording a certain measure of protection.
Lead-poisoning is supposed to have become in the most recent period a still more prevalent, though subtiler and more insidious, cause of suffering and death than arsenical poisoning. Lead is a cumulative poison, and the least particles gathering consecutively in the system retain their baneful powers until quantities have been taken sufficient to produce disease, paralysis, and death. The dangers from drink. ing water which has been conducted through lead pipes has been often impressed upon the people by medical authors. Pipes of galvanized iron are said to be quite as bad as lead pipes. A still more dangerous source of leadpoisoning has lately been introduced to the attention of the public. The tin vessels which are used in every household to hold milk and other fluids, and often for cooking purposes, are said to be made, not of pure tin, but more frequently of an alloy of tin and lead. The lead is easily decomposed by acids, and salts of lead become mixed with the food or drink. A Michigan physician found that a number of cases which had been taken for chorea were in reality paralysis agitans caused by this kind of lead-poisoning. Many cases of the death of children from meningitis, fits, and paralytic affections were traced to the same cause, the children having imbibed the poison in milk which had been kept in cans of this alloy, the acid of the milk having dissolved the lead. Fruit acids will act much quicker upon the alloy. An examination of a large number of tin vessels by the Michigan Board of Health showed that nearly every sample contained lead alloy, and many of them a large proportion of lead. Dr. Emil Querner of Philadel phia, in testing a large number of tin vessels,