« AnteriorContinuar »
The Bureau of Reclamation has also used a Data Collection Platform to monitor the spectral reflection of solar radiation from an irrigated
Reflectance measurements are compared with measured plant conditions in the field. The demonstration could lead to new methods of
irrigation management using remote sensing from space. A four-channel radiometer was mounted on a tower above the corn field to measure the reflected energy in each of the wavelength regions observed by Landsat. Data were relayed daily through the DCP. The data were then transmitted through land lines to the Bureau of Reclamation office in Denver, Colorado. There is a continuing need for a limited network of real-time surface weather observation stations on winter weather modification projects. Ground telemetry can be used but is very costly. Ground-based stations with the capability of frequent interrogation as offered by the GOES relay could prove to be an economical solution to the problem.
An Automatic Environmental Surface Observation Platform (AESOP) was developed for the Bureau of Reclamation for use on the High Plains Cooperative Experiment. The first test of the AESOP is being made in the Sierra Nevada during the 1977-1978 winter season. The test is being conducted in the high-elevation mountain environment near Donner Pass. If data from the AESOP's compare favorably with data from gages presently located at the selected sites, the AESOP's may be moved to isolated sites without redundancy for the 1978-79 winter season.
whose graphs are based on projections by the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Labor summarize the well-known threats to our economic future:
slow growth of goods producing industries (an increase of 20% over 25 years corresponds to an average annual growth rate of only 0.74%)
O rising government spending
an increase in civilian job requirements that can be met only by mobilization of all meaningful-job producing assets of our economy.
These realities clearly establish both direction and priorities for the successful application of space industrialization to the domestic level.
describing, and measuring existing glaciers, and, by comparing images (with other images, aerial photographs and maps) over a period of time, be helpful for studying, describing, and measuring some of the parameters associated with the dynamics of glaciers. The atlas has been divided into two principal parts: Part I, Geographic Distribution of Glaciers, and Part II, Topics of Glaciology and Related Environmental Phenomena.
A number of results have already been obtained from the publication of the "Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers" (Ferrigno and Williams, 1977). It has been possible to determine the geographic location and overall advance or recession of many glaciers by comparing their present-day occurrence and distribution with that in the past as described in the literature and on maps. A number of large discrepancies in mapped position or extent of icecaps or outlet glaciers in Greenland and Spitzbergen and surrounding islands have been found, due either to incorrect mapping or changes in the position of the glaciers or both. It is expected that minor or major discrepancies will be found in other areas as the project progresses. With the resolution of Landsat images and a fixed reference point on the image, it is possible to obtain quantitative measurements of glacier movement or change as small as 175 meters.
Satellite image atlas of glaciers
In June 1977, the EROS Program started a 3-year project to prepare
a USGS Professional Paper, "Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers." Glaciology Project Office (Tacoma, Washington) of the Water Resources Division (WRD) of the GS and the National Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are also directly involved in the preparation of the atlas. The Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. has agreed to contribute to the atlas, and the British Antarctic Survey has informally agreed to participate as well. A number of other national and international organizations will eventually be included in the authorship of the atlas.
Landsat and other satellite imagery provide a new source of data about the environment of our planet, particularly with respect to dynamic environmental phenomena. Sufficient Landsat, NOAA, and other satellite data now exist to compile a "Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers," and the preparation of such an atlas is considered a timely effort because of the wide variety of impending and ongoing national and international climatological studies. The primary objective of the atlas is to provide a pictorial inventory, either in the form of a Landsat or other satellite image, or tabular presentation of the best available Landsat or other satellite images of extant glaciers. Such an atlas should provide a means
of obtaining a better estimate of the total area of the planet covered by glaciers and will also provide a benchmark for: (1) future and past studies of glaciers, and (2) global climatological studies. The atlas should also be useful in providing a common planimetric map base for locating,