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commercial value and documented needs.

As a matter of fact, if anything

A far broader range of possible bioprocessing applications of orbiting spacecraft has been considered, but has received little or no attention for lack of adequate financial resources. has been demonstrated up till now, it is the need for continuing extensive research. For orbiting spacecraft provide an entirely new set of environmental conditions, such as the virtual absence of gravity, and the effects of these conditions are as yet quite unknown. Gravity has been taken for granted for so many years that few scientists have ever given consideration to the consequences of its absence. Urgently needed are studies on the effects of weightlessness on fluid behavior, biological transport phenomena, embryologic and reproductive behavior, isolated but interacting cell systems, tissue culture, etc.

Some of these studies are possible only within the orbiting spacecraft, and it is hoped that the Shuttle will provide the necessary ready access. Within this context, the Shuttle has to be regarded primarily as a unique national research resource and only secondarily as a vehicle for establishing a space-based technology. A far broader range of problems can be attacked by ground-based studies, oriented towards the elucidation of the role of gravity in the phenomena being studied. There is no doubt that this groundbased effort is not only essential for the development of a space bioprocessing technology, but that it will also surely advance the art of ground-based technologies. Within the electrophoresis program, this has already taken place. Due to the stimulation of this field of research, new instruments have been devised, patents issued, and better understanding of the processes achieved. This would not have been possible without the multidisciplinary approach characteristic of all NASA activities, and may alone justify the efforts and moneys so far expended.


1. M. Bier in "Future Space Programs - 1975", p. 3, Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Government Printing Office No. 052-070-02891-2, 1975.






R. S. Snyder, M. Bier, R. N. Griffin, A. J. Johnson, H. Leidheiser, Jr., F. J. Micale, S. Ross and C. J. van Oss: Separation and Purification Methods, 2:259, 1973.

M. Bier, J. O. N. Hinckley and A. J. K. Smolka: XXII Colloquium Protides Biological Fluids, H. Peeters, ed., p. 673, Pergoman Press, N. Y., 1975.

R. S. Snyder and R. E. Allen in "Materials Sciences in Space with Application to Space Processing", L. Steg, ed., p. 399, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1977.

K. Hannig and H. Wirth, ibid., p. 411.

S. Ostrach, ESA Special Publication 114, 1976.

7. D. A. Saville, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 9:321, 1977.


J. Giannovario and R. N. Griffin, submitted to J. Chromatography.




M. Bier, A.J.K. Smolka, A. Kopwillem and S. Ostrach, J. Colloid Interface
Sci. 55:197, 1976.

A. Strickler, AIAA Paper No. 77-233, 15th Aerospace Sciences Meeting,
Los Angeles, CA, January 24-26, 1977.

D. R. Morrison: "Bioprocessing in Space", NASA TM X-58191, Houston,
Texas, 1977.





January 20, 1978

Dear Congressman Teague:

I am pleased to respond to your request for my viewpoints relative to the issues and opportunities associated with our future national space program.

I, of course, feel that increasing emphasis must be placed on the utilization of space for the benefits of mankind, including services such as earth observation and communications. However, the issue of energy has become so critical to the economic survival of our country that I have chosen to limit our response to a paper on how space systems can contribute in this area.

Let me know if there is any other way I can help.

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D. L. Gregory, The Boeing Aerospace Company


Today's newspaper headlines make it evident that our nation is plunging ever deeper into an economic crisis brought about by global energy depletion and our dependence on energy supplies in the hands of an international cartel. Increasing energy costs are reflected by increasing prices for food and industrial products; these price rises are evident as inflation.

Although energy conservation is a necessary expedient to buy time, what is required in addition is a national energy solution to reestablish a sound economy. Desirable characteristics of such a solution include non-depletability, domestic availability, abundance, environmental acceptability, low cost and a short development/implementation program.

There is abundant energy in the universe; it streams past our planet from that giant, existing, fusion reactor, the Sun. Solar power satellites can tap this energy. These power plants in space would beam energy to earth and provide baseload electric power from ground receivers.

Solar power satellites meet all the requirements for a national energy solution. Their implementation would promote the economic stability of the United States. They can be installed on a scale to provide electrical capacity as large as may be foreseeably required. Their environmental impact may be the lowest of any currently envisionable energy source.

Solar power satellite electrical energy may relatively quickly achieve a price of only 4 cents per kilowatt hour; with additional development the price from new satellites might be only 2 cents per kilowatt hour by the early 21st century. This is well below the eventual costs of energy from fossil fuels. Solar power satellites require no fuel. Their useful lifetime, with appropriate maintenance, is indefinite. Thus, after amortization of the original capital cost the energy price can be extremely low, perhaps 1 cent per kilowatt hour.

The United States should move forward with a technical verification program, including in-space tests using the space shuttle. The cost of this program is modest in comparison with expenditures on other energy alternatives and with the economic potential of solar power satellites.

24-215 O 78 21


D. L. Gregory, The Boeing Aerospace Company

Figure 1 summarizes our current problem. We obtain energy primarily from fossil fuels and import approximately half of the oil we use. To do so we now pay approximately $45 billion per year. The result is a severe impact on our national balance of payments. The price to us of this energy is constantly increasing, partly due to growing fuel scarcity and partly due to the actions of the international oil cartel. Energy is fundamental in the production of almost every product we use. For example, food production is dependent upon tractors and fertilizers, which both require energy. When the price of this energy increases, it is natural that the price of food will increase. Manufactured goods require energy for the factories that produce them. When the price of energy increases, so must the price of the goods, etc., with the result that increasing energy cost drives national inflation.

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Figure 2 shows the historical price for three primary fossil fuels: natural gas, crude oil, and bituminous coal. Inflation is not included in this fuel price trend (all of the figures have been adjusted by appropriate deflator values). The impact on a commodity (electricity) is shown on the right. Costs of investment, operation and maintenance, etc., are shown as constant, but the increasing cost of fuel directly impacts the retail U.S. electric price as shown. Of course this simple chart cannot show the feedback effect as increasing energy cost raises the cost for new equipment in the electrical power plants.

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