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Even though we are in transition from the expendable launch vehicle to the Shuttle and from first exploration to continued involvement into space, and though we wish to make full utilization of space technology already developed, I believe that our broad space policy goals should be framed so as to take into account a number of long-term objectives. Namely, our objectives should:


improve man's knowledge of Earth's larger environment,
including outer space and celestial bodies

improve man's ability to use space for all peaceful purposes

strengthen national security, the deterrence of attack,
and the verification of arms control agreements

establish space as an area for all mankind, beyond na-
tional jurisdiction and military competition, and

improve the condition of human beings on earth through
research and through applications of space technology

There are some who would have us improve the prospects for economic

growth by expanding the human economy into space

beyond the limits of and strengthen the skills and technological capabilities of

the Earth

Where these objectives prove to be cost-effective,

the U.S. economy. they should certainly be pursued. And for and in the more distant future, we must, and should expect to, broaden human options by exploiting extraterrestrial alternatives concepts that are food for thought and deserve study.

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As we work toward the development of a national policy which is sensi-
tive to, and allows us to effectively link, our near- and long-term ob-
jectives, however, we must recognize that as the extent and complexity
of space exploration rises, the costs associated with it will also in-
crease. The foreseeable national economy and existing priorities
clearly dictate that we make choices concerning our activities in space.

We must recognize, as a consequence, that for the foreseeable future,
the level of budgetary resources to support the U.S. space program
will likely not change dramatically. Planning for space exploration
and utilization, therefore, must be imaginatively paced in order to
maintain our high industrial, technical and scientific competence
and make best use of valuable national resources.

Within this context, as you are aware, this Administration is in the process of developing a unified space policy that addresses such issues as space arms control, remote sensing potential, interdepartmental space responsibilities and management, and the utilization of space resources for the good of mankind. On this latter point, the Administration is developing an elaborated and public statement of civil space policy. In the process of developing this statement, we will examine the appropriate balance between planetary and space science efforts, the emphasis that should be placed on space applications to Earth needs, and the extent to which this nation should emphasize international applications. In the aeronautics area, we will examine the extent and dimensions of needed basic research and the relationships between Federal investment and policy in aeronautical research and the roles of the private sector. As this policy statement becomes articulated more fully, it is an intention to consult with the Congress to seek its views so that the President may share these insights in his decisions.

It is important that we seek effective returns on the investments we have made in space, including the new Shuttle with its tremendous capability. This requirement can only be achieved by a national commitment to a long-range, coherent program. Such a program should be guided by strategies which build firmly on, and constitute major increases in, the knowledge and utility of space. In keeping with our intent to maximize our investment, it is appropriate to concentrate during the 1980s on the efficient utilization of the new Shuttle capability for applications, science, and our national security interests. Further, our space effort must be balanced with other scientific and technological objectives the overall investment in basic research, energy research and development, health and human nutrition, defense science and technology, and so on.

This year's budgetary review process just completed gives some indication of this Administration's movement and commitment to space exploration. You will have full opportunity to review the budget during NASA authorization hearings. I am convinced it is a good budget. We are proposing to establish a two-coast Shuttle launch capability with four orbiters, with the option to buy an additional orbiter later. Two new science missions are included in the 1979 budget, along with other vigorous increases in sciences. The Solar, Polar mission will investigate the Sun's polar regions for the first time, a cooperative two-spacecraft activity with the European space organization.

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The Solar Mesospheric Explorer will study the effect of solar radiation on the Earth's ozone layer contributing to an overall accelerated effort of research aimed at a better understanding of longer-term climate changes, short-term climate fluctuations, and the impact of human activity on the environment. Our rethinking concerning the role of applications is expressed in the decision to include the multispectral scanner (MSS) for Landsat D. This assures continuity in the existing data stream through 1985 and allows for development of more advanced technology at the same time.

The President has been deeply involved throughout our discussions of both a policy nature and the budget review. His commitment to science and technology as important components of our national effort is strong and is expressed in both his State of the Union and Budget Messages. Among those science and technology components, space applications and science figure prominently. His budget contains increases for space science of 27%, space applications 17%, space research and technology 10%, space basic research of 11%. The President is keenly aware too of the promise that space applications hold for the benefit of all nations and in the developing dialogue of cooperation between the industrial and developing nations. With this strong commitment and interest, and those of committees such as the House Science and Technology Committee, and the American people, I believe that to

gether we will be able to develop a sound and imaginative space policy that will carry us into the 1980s and beyond. We will remain the

world leaders in space exploration and technology.


Dr. PRESS. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am pleased to appear before the Committee on Science and Technology. We in the administration welcome the congressional review on the future directions in the American space program. As you know, the administration is itself in the process of reviewing our overall space policy and evaluating the opportunities on which decisions must be made over the next several years.

These hearings are thus very timely. Furthermore, this year marks two decades of American space exploration. January 31st is the 20th anniversary of the Explorer satellite and October 1 is the 20th anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. In fact, it was about that time that this committee sprang into existence and began to play a key role in insuring success of the American space program. I won't list the accomplishments over the past 20 years, because they are well known. Dr. Frosch has alluded to some of them.

Two decades ago the United States was faced with a technological challenge in space. The American response was to create a focused national space program; to establish a new civil R. & D. organization for space activities; to choose to make the exploration and use of space a permanent extension of man's environment and to utilize space for the good of mankind in general.

The initial challenge has been met and the United States is the leader-without peer-in space science and technology. Now, however, the question no longer is, "Can the United States master space?" The question must be, "To what ends should the United States employ its space capabilities and resources?" Twenty years of vigorous and successful space exploration find us at a transition. The decisions we make today on the Shuttle, space applications, exploration of space and the solar system will set the framework for our next two decades in space, much as the National Space Act did back in 1958.

This administration recognizes that it is a matter of national importance that the United States maintain its leadership position in the peaceful exploration and utilization of near-Earth and deep space. The achievements of the space program to date have made us keenly aware that near-Earth, our own solar system and the deep recesses of outer space are larger extensions of an environment that constitutes a vast arena into which human intelligence, technology, and civilization will continue to search and advance. The administration recognizes further the deeply held belief among the citizenry that science and technology are important to the future of the Nation and that space also is a part of that future.

Even though we are in transition from the expendable launch vehicle to the Shuttle and from first exploration to continued involvement into space, and though we wish to make full utilization of space technology already developed, I believe that our broad space policy goals should be framed so as to take into account a number of longterm objectives. Namely, our objectives should:

Improve man's knowledge of Earth's larger environment, including outer space and celestial bodies;

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