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7. Controlled Density Processing

a. Dispersion Foaming

b. Vaporization Foaming

c. Variable Density Casting

8. Deposition

a. Adhesion Coating


b. Galvanic Plating and Coating

c. Vapor Deposition

9. Solidification

a. Amorphous Solidification

b. Controlled Crystallization

c. Single Crystal Solidification

d. Supercooled Coining

e. Zone Refining

10. Melting

a. Complete Melting, Low and High Viscosity, Overheated
b. Partial Melting, Matrix Melting in Cermets

11. Vaporization

a. Fractional Distillation

b. Fressure-Drop Vaporization

c. Freeze-Drying

12. Nuclear Processing

a. Fission Breeding

b. Fusion Breeding

c. Irradiation

13. Chemical Processing

a. Polymerization

b. Free Radical Chemistry

c. Free Atom Chemistry

14. Fermentation


"Each of them can be combined with others on the list to create more complex processes. These combinations may be synergistic The total number of combined industrial processes that could be obtained by combining these 43 items in all different combinations," according to Stine, "is truly astronomical: 1.642 x half a googol."

1053 ... about

In space, pure alloys are possible, new alloy mixtures are possible, alloys at their theoretical strength 100 times stronger than if made in gravity are possible. Large perfect crystals are possible. In the vacuum of space, sustaining a given temperature for a very long time is possible. Manufacturing in space very thin films and very small items are possible. Computers and electronics will be revolutionized. Superconductors will be in common use. Even based on our present limited knowledge and imagination, we know space processing of biological materials has a possible market of over $1 billion per year.

But beyond that, there may be a long-term cultural effect. With the third industrial revolution, it will no longer be necessary to steal from others instead, go into space and build yourself your own utopia! (Note of Caution: If there is one thing worse than not getting what you want, it is getting what you want!)

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Now back to the present and the present need for action. I can see three or four good approaches to take at this time:

1. Improve and expand traditional already-existing avenues of cryobiological research and development.

2. Establish a National Institute on Low Temperature Biology.
3. Get NASA into space cryobiology.

4. Join the Prometheus Society, "a revolutionary non-profit
corporation" I have formed to actively promote space cryobiology.
Dr. Krafft Ehricke has noted: "If we slip back into the Dark
Ages this time, we do so with our fingers on the nuclear trigger."
The third industrial revolution offers an open door to a closed world.

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Ronald W. Semro

Travelers Insurance Company
Louisville, Kentucky

Charles E. Tandy
Founding Director

Prometheus Society

The following is a proposed bill for possible consideration

by Congress, the President, and the American people


To amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for the
establishment of a National Institute on Low Temperature

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives
of the United States of America in Congress assembled.
SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Low Temperature
Biology Research Act of 197_".

SEC. 2. The Congress finds and declares that--

(1) a major medical breakthrough in the organ transplantation field, the long-term banking of human organs, may

be expected in the near future (how near dependent

on time, ingenuity, and resources);

(2) we should plan and prepare now for the advancement

of the whole new organ banking field about to open upi



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(3) recent research efforts point the way toward
the possibility of whole body preservation so that
those preserved would be able to take advantage of
future medical progress (which may include the cure
of many now-incurable diseases, perhaps even reversal
of the process of aging);

(4) in view of the significant positive effects
and the immense potential effects of tissue and organ
banking on an increasing number and ever greater percentage
of American lives, major effort is now needed toward

the perfection and advancement of tissue and organ banking |
(5) there is no American institution that is undertaking
comprehensive, systematic, large-scale, and intensive
studies in cryobiology, tissue and organ banking, and
the related training of necessary personnel;

(6) the establishment of a National Institute on
Low Temperature Biology will meet the need for such
an institution.

SEC. 3. Title IV of the Public Health Service Act is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new part (following Part H):

"Part I---National Institute on Low Temperature Biology

24-215 O-78-60

page 3


"SEC. 461. The Secretary shall establish in the Service an institute to be known as the National Institute on Low Temperature Biology (hereinafter in this part referred

to as the 'Institute') for the conduct and support of research in cryobiology, tissue and organ banking, and other related matters, and the related training of necessary personnel. "NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL ON LOW TEMPERATURE BIOLOGY

"SEC. 462. (a) The Secretary shall establish a National Advisory Council on Low Temperature Biology to advise, consult with, and make recommendations to him on programs administered by him and on those matters which relate to

the Institute.

"(b) The provisions relating to the composition, terms of office of members, and reappointment of members of advisory councils under section 432(a) shall be applicable to the Advisory Council established under this section, except that (1) the Secretary may include on such Advisory Council such additional ex officio members as he deems necessary, and (2) the Secretary shall appoint to the Council leading authorities skilled in aspects of the cryobiology, tissue and organ banking, and related fields.

"(c) Upon appointment of such Advisory Council, it shall. assume all, or such part as the Secretary may specify,

of the duties, functions, and powers of the National Advisory

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