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(Policy Perspectives cont.)
I. COLLAPSE OF TRADITIONAL NATIONAL SECURITY CONCEPTS
II. CONGRESSIONAL PREOCCUPATION WITH IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
III. THE PENDULUM SWING IN THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
IV. WHICH NATION WILL PROVIDE WORLD-WIDE INSPIRATION FOR THE FUTURE ?
Throughout recorded history tribes and nations have based their defense planning on a commitment to increase their powers to kill enemies who threatened. There has been no other valid basic assumption. But a historic era has been collapsing for more than two decades, as the top-of-the-line strategic weapons on both sides have become capable, if unleashed, of annihilating both sides and much or most, of world populations. like passengers in two giant airplanes flying toward each other in a cloud, the citizens of both sides of modern war face the prospect of obliteration. There no longer is an increased sense of security in public attitudes toward escalating military budgets. Finding new strategic concepts and objectives has become imperative. The awesome breakthrough into Space Power has been a by-product of this science and technology race between the superpowers. In a new sense the leap into the Space Age dwarfs the earlier breakthrough into the Nuclear Age, because it has provided humankind with an unprecedented cosmic choice . . . a choice of life or death for humanity
.a moral choice. On the one hand space power can enhance the probabilities of the final holocaust, by holding the weapons of extermination over the heads of all human beings, like the Sword of Damocles hanging over every man and woman by a thin human hair, with the competitive preparations for future space war. The NAVSTAR satellite navigation complex for which the Congress has authorized funds for some years, will be able to drop a nuclear bomb, or an ordinary bomb, or a firecracker within thirty feet of any chosen target on Earth, by unmanned missiles or aircraft. On the other hand the NAVSTAR space program can provide precise navigation aid for the public safety in all land, sea and air transport, everywhere on Earth. These and many other earth-orbiting military and civilian, intelligence and communications satellite systems can become the unprecedented pro-human global power tools, with which to begin building the foundations for a future civilized world-wide management complex capable of stabilizing international relations without threats of war, as the satellites also assist all nations in their struggles for the production of food, clothing, housing, energy, clean air & water, health, education and national security for all populations held within prudent limits. I will provide concrete examples on following pages.
(Policy Perspectives cont.)
CONGRESSIONAL PREOCCUPATION WITH IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
Mentioned in sympathy and not in criticism, due to the increasing pressures and crises Members of Congress have become somewhat like persons trapped in the hold of a burning, sinking vessel at sea... beating frantically at nearby hot flames with inadequate brooms ... unable to force their attentions on the complex problem of building a fire-proof boat or a crisis-proof world order.
The White House has never told the Congress the answer to the question What Kind of Future World Order are we Trying to Create ?".
At least publicly, the Congress has never asked.
THE PENDULUM SWING IN THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Advancing science and technology and management skills which made possible production of jet bombers to kill people at unprecedented magnitudes and distances, then made possible the historic pendulum swing in the opposite direction, to the production of jet transport planes bringing people closer together into new world community.
Similarly the Soviet/American science and technology race producing global systems of death, destruction and extermination, has now reached the historic moment when a pendulum swing in the opposite direction is feasible for the first time in history, for the gradual development and pragmatic testing of world-wide war prevention systems and life support systems for all nations.
The Chief Executive of and the Board of Directors of a corporation producing jet bombers. .,and no one below these officials .can make the executive decision Dutilize the same scientists and engineers and specialists in all fields, to produce, instead, jet transport planes to serve the needs of world civilization. Similarly, the President of the United States and the Congress .and no one in the U.S. power structures below these men and women in Government .can make the executive decision to lead the world in the coming generation in the research and development and public demonstration of world-sized systems and structures and legal institutions, to guard the security, independence and development of all nations (somewhat as Air Traffic Control guards the safety and forward progress of all airplanes in a cloud).
I am attaching as an appendix to this document, for the purpose of stimulating creative discussion, the projection of but one concrete example of such an executive decision which can be made by the President and Congress without further delay. The discussion agenda was published in December 1973 issue of SPECTRUM, journal of the 160,000 member Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IEEE under the title 11 A GLOBAL INFORMATION COOPERATIVE ". This is the projection of greatly increased programs for military and civilian earth-orbiting, life-serving satellite services to provide intelligence and information and communications to help the people of all nations in their struggles for security, independence and development. I will provide many specific examples of these services in a moment.
(Policy Perspectives cont.)
WHICH NATION WILL PROVIDE WORLD-WIDE INSPIRATION FOR THE FUTURE ?
There are about 150 sovereign nations on the planet. The patriotic people of these nations have not attached their support to either Kremlin or White House side of the self-generating race for power to threaten the consumption of scarce energies and resources for the inflationary production of the power to destroy world populations. Any politician can understand this world public "gut reaction".
The nation which will deserve world leadership in the coming era will be the superpower with leadership vision and human concern great enough to (1) meet all requirements for its own national defense and in addition (2) set the pace for a next generation competition to develop anddemonstrate and establish the operational feasibility of world-sized systems and institutions to serve the basic needs of all nations. The earth-serving satellite systems and services can provide the leading edge for eventual breakthrough into a new Age of Compassionate Power. will be the most complex and difficult challenge civilization ever has faced.
Making Planet Earth safe for human futures will dwarf the difficulties of making the Moon safe for human visits. But all essential elements with which to begin the historic effort are within reach of the President and Congress. The life-preserving satellite systems have been developed, and tested, and proven and within reach of those in authority in the U.S. Government.
Over a year ago NASA chose twenty of its key executives to work together for a year, inviting opinions from hundreds of outside sources, to project the long range future for U.S. space programs. The exhaustive report to the Administrator was titled OUTLOOK FOR SPACE. As this creative team turned in this study to the Administrator, I believe you will find that the group made a strong private recommendation to him that the "applications" budgets for research and development should be raised from about two hundred million dollars a year, to about six hundred million dollars a year. to place these humanity-serving
development programs on an equal level with the space science and manned spectacular research and development budgets.
These recommendations by the NASA long range planning experts have been ignored. The Office of Management and Budget apparently has imposed the discipline to keep the NASA budget request to the Congress for these earth-serving satellite applications down to the traditional, highly inadequate figures. Congress has been too preoccupied with near-by. flames to try to find the long range national security interest.
The moment is here. The U.S. has the capabilities. As President Kennedy refocused American public opinion beyond the Cuban Invasion fiasco by the public commitment of American creativity and power to make the Moon safe for human visits....today President Carter and Congress can refocus the world-wide yearning for leadership toward an end to war, sparked by President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin, by an awe-inspiring commitment of American creativity and power and character to the unprecedented task of developing world-sized systems and institutions to guard the security and independence and progress of all nations.
Missing only is the vision and commitment by the President and Congress.
(Policy Perspectives cont.)
U.S.GRAND STRATEGY THE AMERICAN PEOPLE CAN GRASP AND SUPPORT
If the American people are to be spared the hopelessness of runaway world crisis, like a successful football coach the President and Congress will have to maintain two different kinds of superior strategic power.
For many years the President and Congress will have to maintain superior defense power, to prevent opposing hostile powers from breaking through to their goal of world dominion. But a nation, or a football team, with nothing more than defense strategy, in time will lose the confrontation. In addition ...
The President and Congress will have to create and maintain superior forward power gradually in the coming years to move all power confrontations down the field toward the distant goal of a civilized world community of nations, far more complex and effective than the present United Nations, capable of guarding the security and independence and development of all nations, large and small.
A large sector of America will continue to work in the defense platoons, defending the United States against clear and present dangers from hostile foreign powers. Without a strong defense power the American people face disaster and tragedy.
And in addition . . .
A large sector of America will be released and channeled in the forward platoons, as the President and Congress make a large scale, long range, sustained commitment before the whole world to an unprecedented generation of creativity and new fields of research and development and testing and demonstration of the prototype models of the future LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR PLANET EARTH, serving the basic needs of all nations .with the same boldness and inventiveness and determination displayed by America in the past generation's world leadership developing powers of global death and calamity and extermination.
In recent years in America the "softliners" and the "hardliners" have been fighting each other, further weakening the United States as it has been losing its world influence. But under the projected new U.S. Grand Strategy the "doves" and the "hawks" ... the "softliners" and the "hardliners" the defense platoons
and the forward platoons, will be playing on the same team for a change, striving during the coming generation to lead the nations of the world toward the goal of new world institutions within which science and technology (knowledge and skills in all fields) will be harnessed to serve the needs of humanity, rather than producing the power to rupture or destroy world civilization.
Just as a stimulant to creative imagination, on later pages I will show a few concrete examples of the forward platoons leading the world in the development of lifeserving satellite systems.
The following are a few highlights of space programs already proven, and readily available for a new world statesmanship.
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The LANDSAT satellite in one orbit around the Earth in approximately 103 minutes, invades the privacy of every sovereign nation in its path 115 miles wide, gathering ...communicating to the U.S. . . .and storing intimate intelligence and information. This creates one of the most complex and difficult "foreign relations" problems in history. Once every eighteen days this one LANDSAT satellite inspects in increasingly minute detail, the sovereign territory of every nation on the planet, without exception. Yet is has been our experience that members of the Senate and House Foreign Relations and International Affairs Committees are almost wholly uninformed on the functioning of these new global power tools which have been operating for more than four years.
This is only one small part of the problem facing Congress. In one orbit of the Earth this one "eye in the sky" satellite involves the direct and immediate responsibility of at least twenty-four Committees in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Your Committee is quite bold to permit this subject to be discussed pro and con. Other Committees have refused to allow discussion" because it is beyond the jurisdiction or the authority of this Committee". This illustrates how the Congress has tended to abdicate responsibility for determining the character or the objectives of U.S. global science and technology and strategic power.
During the eighteen days it takes one LANDSAT to cover the entire Earth, garnering
Do "eye in the sky" satellites involve "military" or "civilian" policy? One of the emerging satellites will contain instruments which will measure the temperature of the surface water of the oceans, hundreds of miles below, to within a fraction of a degree. This will be of added value for civilian seastate and weather forecasting. But this same instrument at the same moment will be able to detect the faint trail of slightly warmer water rising to the surface, heated by the friction of the propellor of a silent nuclear submarine, against the surrounding water, leaving a tell-tale trail of warmer surface water to mark the path of this military submarine. From here on out "military technology" and "civilian technology" increasingly will overlap, involving simultaneously two or three .. or eight or nine . . .Committees of the House or Senate simultaneously. Satellites monitoring crops along national borders, simultaneously will be monitoring troop movements across that border. Satellites monitoring pollution of rivers from sewage or oil spills, also will detect pollution of the same river from production of nuclear or other weapons.
The Leadership of the House and the Senate have not yet begun to grasp responsibility.