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ABSTRACT

Space will play an important role in our future through contributions to the solution of major problems on earth today and to provide significant but as yet undefined new benefits for all people. Opportunities will expand rapidly when the Space Shuttle becomes operational.

In the early 1980's, we must fully exploit the Shuttle as a low-cost transportation and servicing system, as an experimental platform, and as a facility for learning how to assemble and build large structures on orbit. Assembled platforms can be attached initially to the Shuttle and later grouped to provide free-flying, multi-purpose modules for space applications development, material processing experiments, and feasibility demonstrations.

These steps will provide the foundation for the large "overarching" program in the 1990's, culminating in a major, permanent, on-orbit operational center by the year 2000 oriented to providing large-scale contributions to the people on earth. The demonstration phase activities of the 1980's should determine the functions of this center, its location, and its users and enable us to proceed with its detailed design.

Near-term and longer-term goals must challenge our spirt and technological capabilities, yet be flexible to permit response to technology advances and funding variations. Plans must be reasonably scheduled, stable, attractive, easily understandable and communicated to the U.S. public and industry to obtain their full support and participation. Toward these goals, I urge that Congress provide real growth in NASA's budget, averaging at least five percent annually beginning in 1980.

Appropriate management and institutional changes will have to keep pace with technical capability growth. I recommend, for instance, consideration of a longer time period for NASA's authorization and appropriation cyclesfour years and two years, respectively to allow Congress more time for assessing proposed programs and establishing funding priorities and to provide significant benefits in program continuity, stability, and productivity. Furthermore, I propose that the federal government consider near-term incentives to stimulate broad-scale participation of the U.s. private sector in space Industrialization and subsequently to strongly aid in financing nearterm economic feasibility demonstrations leading to longer-term, large-scale space operations.

It is becoming increasingly evident that other nations intend to capitalize on the progress of the past. No nation will remain economically competitive or secure without a vigorous, Imaginative program on the space frontier. A detailed program with elements generally along the lines as outlined here should be planned and plemented. Government-indu cry teams are capable of its accomplishment. The public, I believe, is expecting it. Congress can make it happen.

BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE W. JEFFS
PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN SPACE OPERATIONS
CORPORATE VICE PRESIDENT, ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL CORP.

As president of Rockwell International's North American Space Operations, Mr. Jeffs 18 accountable for directing the corporation's spacecraft, propulsion, energy, and advanced technology programs at the Space, Rocketdyne, and Atomics International Divisions.

Mr. Jeffs began his career with Rockwell in 1947 as a member of the company's Aerophysics Laboratory. He was rapidly promoted, becoming successively section chief, Advanced Engineering; section chief, Systems Engineering; manager, Corporate Technical Development and Planning; vice president and program manager, Paraglider program; and corporate executive director, Engineering.

Joining the Apollo team in 1966, Mr. Jeffs served for three years as assistant program manager and chief program engineer. In 1969, he was appointed vice president and program manager of the Space Division's Apollo cormand and service modules (CSM) program, a position he held until 1973. He directed the CSM program through nine lunar missions, three Skylab missions, and the joint USA-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Among other contributions, Mr. Jeffs is credited with developing real-time industry engineering and management flight support techniques, including the in-flight support of Apollo missions that led to the timely solution of many critical flight problems.

In April 1974, following a brief period in which he was both executive vice president of the Space Division and Space Shuttle program manager, he was appointed president of the Space Division, a post he held for two years. As division president, he directed the efforts of management-technical teams involved in producing systems and hardware for programs ranging from the Shuttle system Integration and orbiter elements to NAVSTAR satellites for the Clobal Positioning System.

Mr. Jeffs was appointed president of Rockwell International's North American Space Operations and Corporate Vice President of Rockwell International in April 1976.

Mr. Jeffs' contributions to the space program have been acknowledged by the receipt of numerous Presidential and Congressional awards and letters of commendation including the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, NASA Public Service Award, and two NASA Certificates of Appreciation.

Mr. Jeffs is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society. He also served in the U.S. Navy Air Corps and is an active Instrument and multiengine rated pilot today.

Mr. Jeffs received his B.s. and M.S. degrees in aeronautical engineering from the University of Washington.

STATEMENT OF GEORGE W. JEFFS

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I welcome this opportunity to appear before the committee to express our views at Rockwell International on the future space program.

In defining the nation's future space program, it is useful to briefly examine some recommendations from earlier studies as well as new factors and information that are available to us today.

In 1969, as we were achieving President Kennedy's objective of landing a man on the moon and safely returning him to earth, the Space Task Group was preparing recommendations for the space program of the 1970's and beyond. It noted the value of committing to long-term goals as a guide for both short-term and longer-range decisions. And it recognized the need to challenge man's spirit and technical capabilities.

A program was proposed at that time to utilize space for the welfare, security, and enlightenment of all people through development of a new space transportation system and space station modules, emphasizing commonality, reusability, and economy. The Space Task Group recommendations led, of course, to the selection of the Space Shuttle development, while funding constraints dictated deferral of space station modules.

In the 1975 Future Space Programs hearing held by the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Mr. Fuqua concluded that, and I quote "... the imagination, skill, and technology exist to expand the utilization and exploration of space. The positive benefits of a bold space program are compelling."

Specific recommendations for implementation were also made, but budgetary considerations again dictated their deferral. It is interesting to note, however, that the basic theme for the future space program--economical transportation and space stations--remained relatively unchanged.

Today, it is even more urgent that we test the feasibility of using space systems to help solve our growing major problems on earth. This potential exists with respect to energy, pollution, health, economic growth, and in many other areas.

The rapid rate of change in space-related technology, as represented by Space Shuttle and microelectronics, will soon make new operations in space possible and will profoundly influence the direction of our overall future space program.

There is expanding national and international interest in space systems and services. And, of course, the Soviet Union continues its steady military and scientific progress in space as witnessed by a launch rate four times that of the United States, development of killer satellites, and the current modular space station activities. Lt. General Viadimir Shatalov has recently stated that the USSR "contemplates future stations much larger than present Salyuts, with crews of 12 to 20 people."

Consideration of all these factors has been taken into account in formulating a future space program plan for the United States that I now will begin to outline.

When the Space Shuttle comes "on line," it will bring about significant changes in the way we operate in space. As a transporter, it will reduce the cost of getting into space to more affordable levels--and on a routine service basis. As a service system and an experimental platform, it will permit, for the first time, space workers to position and assemble large elements that have been launched together, or separately, or even fabricated in space. And it will, of course, provide opportunities for greatly expanded experimentation on orbit with relatively low-cost instruments and/or laboratories and without the need to develop expensive satellites to carry them.

The Space Shuttle is the first step of our future space program, and it is the key to providing large-scale benefits from space. Our program for the first decade of Shuttle operations should therefore plan to exploit the

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