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Moore, G. K., and Deutsch, Morris, 1975, ERTS Imagery for Ground-Water

Investigations:

Ground Water, v.

13, no. 2, p. 214-226.

Moore, G. K., 1976, Recommended procedures and keys for detection of

aquifers on Landsat images: U.S. Geol. Survey Water Resources

Division Bull., p. 15-20, October.

Moore, G. K., 1977, Prospecting for ground water with Landsat imagery:

Proc. Technical Session on Hydrologic Applications of Remote Sensors,

U.N. World Water Conf. Mar del Plata, Argentina, March.

National Research Council, 1977, Microwave remote sensing from space

for earth resource surveys:

National Academy of Sciences, Wash.

D.C., 139 p.

Parashar, s. K. , Bigg, A. W., Fung, A. K., and Moore, R. K., 1974,

Investigation of radar discrimination of sea ice:

Internat.

Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 9th, Ann Arbor,

Mich. 1974, Proc., p. 323–332.

Projecto RADAM, 1973, Levantamento de recursos naturais geologia,

geomorfologia, solos, vegetaco, uso potential da terra:

Rio de Janiero, Brasil, Ministerio das Minas e Energia,

Departamento Nacional de Producão Mineral, v. 1, 2, and 3.

Raines, G. L., 1977, Maps of Lineament Intersections and of Hydrothermal

Alteration, Northern Sonora, Mexico:

U.S. Geol. Survey Open File

Report No. 77-78, 12 maps, 5 p.

Regan, R. C., Cain, J. C., and Davis, W. M. , 1975, A global magnetic

anomaly map:

Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 80, no. 5, p. 794-802.

Rinkenberger, R. K., 1977, Implementing remote sensing techniques for

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evaluating mine ground stability, Mining Enforcement and Safety

Administration information report 1057, 36 p.

Robinove, C. J., 1977, Experimental land systems mapping with digital

Landsat images. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium

on Remote Sensing of Environment, 25-29 April, 1977, Center for

Remote Sensing Information and Analysis, Environmental Research

Institute of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich., v. II, p. 1241.

Rowan, L. C., Wetlaufer, P. H., Goetz, A. F. H., Billingsley, F. C. and

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Stewart, J. H., 1974, Discrimination of rock types and detection of

hydrothermally altered areas in south-central Nevada by use of

computer-enhanced ERTS images: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 883,

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Salas, Guillermo P., 1977, Relationship of Mineral resources to linear

features in Mexico as determined from Landsat data:

U.S. Geol.

Survey Prof. Paper 1015, p. 61-74.

Schmidt, R. G., 1976, Detection of hydrothermal sulfide deposits,

Saindak area, Western Pakistan, in ERTS-1, A new window on our

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Schmugge, T., Wilheit, T., Webster, W., and Gloering, P., 1976, Remote

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sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers-II:

NASA

Technical Note TND-8321, NASA, Wash. D.C.

Energy resources in evaporite basins

Future energy requirements and current estimates of world oil and

gas reserves indicate that other energy sources must be found to replace

conventional sources that are rapidly being depleted.

While coal remains

relatively abundant, industrial conversion to coal is often costly and

creates concommitant environmental problems.

Nuclear and hydroelectric

power sources have been well established but caution must be used in

certain areas of high seismic risk.

Solar, wind, and tidal power must

also be explored.

Another alternate source of energy employing fusion

reactors is receiving greater attention and depends heavily on lithium

to produce tritium. Lithium, an alkaline metal used in storage batteries,

was previously thought to be very limited in distribution and restricted

to small igneous bodies known as pegmatites.

In recent years, however,

it has been found and is mined from the salt evaporite basin at

Clayton Valley, Nevada, by the Foote Mineral Company.

More recently,

lithium has been found in salt brines of evaporite basins of the Atacama

desert of northern Chile and in the Salar de Uyuni of southern Bolivia.

Research studies of Landsat images covering these two salars have

demonstrated that the salt surfaces are highly dynamic features subjected

to seasonal flooding (Carter and others, in press). Spectral signatures

of mapped units of the salt surface were found to be based on roughness

and moisture content.

Repetitive images show that surface water tends

to accumulate in the same areas.

Lithium has been found both in surface

brine ponds and brine layers below the salt crust (Ericksen and others,

1977). While research has not yet defined a spectral signature for

Monitoring dynamic marine phenomena

Landsat may be uniquely configured, both in terms of spatial

resolution and in spectral sensitivity of its sensors to obtain images

of dynamic marine phenomena.

On June 19, 1976, an unusual Landsat

band 4 image (2514-12021) was acquired off the southwest coast of

Iceland, which recorded some peculiar near-surface, large-scale marine

current patterns (Williams, 1977).

Within the area of the image, at least eight well defined eddies

are visible, and at least three well developed double eddies (one turning

clockwise, the other counterclockwise) can be delineated in the

near-surface waters.

Individual eddies associated with the double

eddies have diameters of 12 to 19 mi.

The area of the image is a region

of high productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton which support a

large and economically important fish population.

Although the light-toned

water spectrally resembles sediment-laden water, the distance from the

Icelandic coast (77 mi. to the center of the image) makes it more

probable that the light tone of the water is the result of concentrations

of phytoplankton.

The variation in light- and dark-toned water is caused

by extensive mixing of coastal currents, possibly modified by upwelling.

MSS band 4 Landsat images may represent an important new source of data

about the dynamic marine environment of coastal shelf-slope areas.

STATEMENT OF KRAFFT A. EHRICKE,

PRESIDENT, SPACE GLOBAL CO.,

to the

COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

HEARING ON FUTURE SPACE PROGRAMS

U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

JANUARY 1978

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