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Moore, G. K., and Deutsch, Morris, 1975, ERTS Imagery for Ground-Water
Ground Water, v.
13, no. 2, p. 214-226.
Moore, G. K., 1976, Recommended procedures and keys for detection of
aquifers on Landsat images: U.S. Geol. Survey Water Resources
Division Bull., p. 15-20, October.
Moore, G. K., 1977, Prospecting for ground water with Landsat imagery:
Proc. Technical Session on Hydrologic Applications of Remote Sensors,
U.N. World Water Conf. Mar del Plata, Argentina, March.
National Research Council, 1977, Microwave remote sensing from space
for earth resource surveys:
National Academy of Sciences, Wash.
D.C., 139 p.
Parashar, s. K. , Bigg, A. W., Fung, A. K., and Moore, R. K., 1974,
Investigation of radar discrimination of sea ice:
Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 9th, Ann Arbor,
Mich. 1974, Proc., p. 323–332.
Projecto RADAM, 1973, Levantamento de recursos naturais geologia,
geomorfologia, solos, vegetaco, uso potential da terra:
Rio de Janiero, Brasil, Ministerio das Minas e Energia,
Departamento Nacional de Producão Mineral, v. 1, 2, and 3.
Raines, G. L., 1977, Maps of Lineament Intersections and of Hydrothermal
Alteration, Northern Sonora, Mexico:
U.S. Geol. Survey Open File
Report No. 77-78, 12 maps, 5 p.
Regan, R. C., Cain, J. C., and Davis, W. M. , 1975, A global magnetic
Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 80, no. 5, p. 794-802.
Rinkenberger, R. K., 1977, Implementing remote sensing techniques for
evaluating mine ground stability, Mining Enforcement and Safety
Administration information report 1057, 36 p.
Robinove, C. J., 1977, Experimental land systems mapping with digital
Landsat images. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium
on Remote Sensing of Environment, 25-29 April, 1977, Center for
Remote Sensing Information and Analysis, Environmental Research
Institute of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich., v. II, p. 1241.
Rowan, L. C., Wetlaufer, P. H., Goetz, A. F. H., Billingsley, F. C. and
Stewart, J. H., 1974, Discrimination of rock types and detection of
hydrothermally altered areas in south-central Nevada by use of
computer-enhanced ERTS images: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 883,
Salas, Guillermo P., 1977, Relationship of Mineral resources to linear
features in Mexico as determined from Landsat data:
Survey Prof. Paper 1015, p. 61-74.
Schmidt, R. G., 1976, Detection of hydrothermal sulfide deposits,
Saindak area, Western Pakistan, in ERTS-1, A new window on our
Schmugge, T., Wilheit, T., Webster, W., and Gloering, P., 1976, Remote
sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers-II:
Technical Note TND-8321, NASA, Wash. D.C.
Energy resources in evaporite basins
Future energy requirements and current estimates of world oil and
gas reserves indicate that other energy sources must be found to replace
conventional sources that are rapidly being depleted.
While coal remains
relatively abundant, industrial conversion to coal is often costly and
creates concommitant environmental problems.
Nuclear and hydroelectric
power sources have been well established but caution must be used in
certain areas of high seismic risk.
Solar, wind, and tidal power must
also be explored.
Another alternate source of energy employing fusion
reactors is receiving greater attention and depends heavily on lithium
to produce tritium. Lithium, an alkaline metal used in storage batteries,
was previously thought to be very limited in distribution and restricted
to small igneous bodies known as pegmatites.
In recent years, however,
it has been found and is mined from the salt evaporite basin at
Clayton Valley, Nevada, by the Foote Mineral Company.
lithium has been found in salt brines of evaporite basins of the Atacama
desert of northern Chile and in the Salar de Uyuni of southern Bolivia.
Research studies of Landsat images covering these two salars have
demonstrated that the salt surfaces are highly dynamic features subjected
to seasonal flooding (Carter and others, in press). Spectral signatures
of mapped units of the salt surface were found to be based on roughness
and moisture content.
Repetitive images show that surface water tends
to accumulate in the same areas.
Lithium has been found both in surface
brine ponds and brine layers below the salt crust (Ericksen and others,
1977). While research has not yet defined a spectral signature for
Monitoring dynamic marine phenomena
Landsat may be uniquely configured, both in terms of spatial
resolution and in spectral sensitivity of its sensors to obtain images
of dynamic marine phenomena.
On June 19, 1976, an unusual Landsat
band 4 image (2514-12021) was acquired off the southwest coast of
Iceland, which recorded some peculiar near-surface, large-scale marine
current patterns (Williams, 1977).
Within the area of the image, at least eight well defined eddies
are visible, and at least three well developed double eddies (one turning
clockwise, the other counterclockwise) can be delineated in the
Individual eddies associated with the double
eddies have diameters of 12 to 19 mi.
The area of the image is a region
of high productivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton which support a
large and economically important fish population.
Although the light-toned
water spectrally resembles sediment-laden water, the distance from the
Icelandic coast (77 mi. to the center of the image) makes it more
probable that the light tone of the water is the result of concentrations
The variation in light- and dark-toned water is caused
by extensive mixing of coastal currents, possibly modified by upwelling.
MSS band 4 Landsat images may represent an important new source of data
about the dynamic marine environment of coastal shelf-slope areas.