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In consonance with our remarks today, we offer the following broad recommendations:

Advance the Space Shuttle into operational readiness. Getting to and from space is
necessary in utilizing space for any endeavor. Therefore, we feel that the Space
Transportation System should be brought into operation at the earliest possible date.
Moreover, the primary consideration in implementing the Shuttle program was the
ability to conduct experiments, applications research, and operations from near-
earth orbit at the earliest possible time. We should now begin preparations to under-
take these long-sought space programs.

Implement an evolutionary approach to obtain additional electrical power on orbit,
gain the ability to assemble large structures in space, and develop payloads and
programs that can utilize these capabilities. Abundant electrical power and long stay
times on orbit are the most important and technologically feasible next steps toward
a broad spectrum of potential new space-program benefits. The capability to assemble
large structures in space is needed to achieve the benefits that greatly improved
communications and alternative energy sources can provide. These two capabilities,
augmented by the Space Transportation System, offer the broadest possible spectrum
of new opportunities to continue the flow of benefits from space.

Establish "proof of concept" demonstration milestones to assess technical and
fiscal feasibility as well as progress toward ultimate goals.

Increase R&D funding to initiate developments directed toward new space opportunities.
Stability of R&D funding should be an objective, for fluctuating budget levels lead to
wasteful use of resources. A strong R&D effort will directly contribute to technological
leadership. To preserve the current U. S. position, we must recognize and act upon this

Operate on the assumption that future space programs, like those of the past and
present, will yield numerous unanticipated benefits. While benefits that can be
identified in advance will always be major considerations, it should be borne in
mind that our space programs have historically produced numerous unforeseen
benefits and applications of great utility and significance.


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■Implement an Evolutionary Approach to:

- Electrical Power On-Orbit

- Large Structures in Space

- Payloads Utilizing These Capabilities

"Plan "Proof of Concept" Demonstration Milestones

■Increase Total R&D Funding

-Have Faith in Beneficial Fallouts

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President, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company

Huntington Beach, California

Mr. Johnson has been President of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company since 1975.
Before that, he was Corporate Vice President, Engineering and Research, with
McDonnell Douglas Corporation in St. Louis, Missouri.

From 1969 to 1973, Mr. Johnson served as Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development. During World War II, he served in the Navy as a lieutenant.

From 1946 to 1969, Mr. Johnson held numerous technical management positions at Mc Donnell Douglas, including that of Vice President, Research and Engineering, during the time when the Delta and Saturn launch vehicles were being developed. When appointed Assistant Secretary of the Army, he was serving as Vice President for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) Program.

Mr. Johnson has received many awards for contributions in civil and military affairs. He holds bachelor's and master's degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley.

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Mr. JOHNSON. [Slide.] McDonnell Douglas has been involved for a long time in these programs. It is therefore from that background as well as some straight hard thinking on the present questions you have asked that leads to our present statement.


Let me begin by saying that we are concerned with the reduction that has occurred in at least a percentage of our GNP, which is being applied to general R. & D. This is not just space but overall R. & D. and it is civilian and Government combined. I hasten to point out that since our GNP has been going up that there has been an increase in the dollars absolutely, but when you consider the effects of inflation the net result since 1965 has been that R. & D. expenditures in the United States have been flat; whereas it is clear that others are increasing. I think attention by Congress to increasing that is important.


Next I would pass on to say that in this activity of planning for NASA's future programs and the country's future programs that industry does plan an important role. It is in those areas there that I would like particularly to draw your attention to the fact that both in No. 2 there is support given to our own company R. & D. programs in funding, and as to the third point industry can and does utilize commercial applications that can come from space.

[Slide.] Those applications in the past have been many. I think during the course of the programs in the past several days you have heard them. I have in the statement a more detailed list to help answer those questions of what has come out in terms of applications.

[Slide.] I would as an example of that point out to you the commercial applications that we at McDonnell Douglas have made from space. Those are commercial activities that all together McDonnell Douglas has put about $100 million into covering those elements.

Heat pipes we developed for use in the Alaskan oil pipeline to keep the foundation stable. Over 100,000 of those were built.

The cryogenic insulation refers to an insulation system for use in LNG tankers which was developed for the Saturn booster tanks we built.

Flight simulators, we are producing something called a vital simulator which is the first computer-generated daylight seeing capability. The Delta space booster, the latest revision of that the 4913 was developed under company funds and we now have under company funds significant work going ahead for spinning upper stages.

[Slide.] We think, going on, that out of the Shuttle will come significant capabilities. The major technical advances we think will be in the area of solar power generation, advanced communications and new industrial processes. The initial step in the solar power generation would be the experiments necessary to determine the technical and economical feasibility of both generating and transferring that to space.

In advanced communications the improvements can clearly promote international cooperation, education, news coverage, air traffic control, search and rescue, military operations and data and message interchange among individuals. That will require large structures in space, as will the experiments associated with solar power generation.

In the area of experiments with the Shuttle and the Europeandeveloped spacelab, we see many experiments that could lead to prod

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