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found among the teachers of the University. Nevertheless, it is desirable that the authorities should be able to deal rather more liberally than they now can with those who devote half of the long vacation to teaching.
N. S. Shaler, s ’62.
THE SCIENTIFIC ESTABLISHMENTS.
JEFFERSON PHYSICAL LABORATORY. The courses in Physics have steadily assumed, since the establishment of the Jefferson Physical Laboratory, a quantitative character. There are certain critics who object to measurement courses, and who believe that qualitative courses and lecture courses are more liberally educating, and that science can advance by other means than by careful measurement. Professor Münsterberg has remarked, “ Die Messung ist niemals Selbstzweck in der Psychologie, eben dadurch unterscheidet sie sich von der Physik.” Careful measurement would perform the same valuable function in Psychology as in Physics, namely, the sifting of hypotheses. It is only by careful measurement that science can be sure of an advance, or that scientific truths can be surely handed on to subsequent generations. I am prompted to make the above reflection from remarks which I often hear in regard to the necessity of the general exhibition of physical phenomena to students, in order to give them a liberal view of the subject. “ Measurement courses,” it is said, “may be very well for the investigator, but cramping to the student.” Moreover, there should be a number of Elementary Courses in Physics, suited to the varying capacities and needs of students. The Physical Department believes that very little educational training or sound knowledge can be obtained in Physics except by enrolment in the carefully graded laboratory courses which long experience has own to be essential for a liberal training in Physics. A student cannot expect to study advantageously sound, or light, or heat, or any other subject in Physics, until he has had the instruction in the graded courses which are now offered. - The Physical Laboratory has been in operation about ten years. Before its establishment the function of a Professor of Physics was merely to teach by lectures and recitations. He might or might not be an investigator. To-day a certain amount of original work is expected of him. During the past ten years more original work in Physics has been done in Harvard University than in the previous two hundred years. The difficulty of physical investigation has been much lessened by the employment of a skilful mechanician, and by the equipment of a machine-shop. In addition to the services of a worker in wood and metal, the laboratory needs a skilful glass-blower. At present there is a wide range of subjects
in Physics, in which investigation is debarred from the necessity of a worker in glass. I need only mention the subject of the so-called X-rays. Investigation in this subject in this University necessarily ceased on account of the need of such a workman. — Among the scientific papers published from the laboratory during the past year were papers on “The Conductivity of Certain Rocks,” by Prof. B. O. Peirce and Dr. Willson (this investigation has an important bearing on theories in regard to the age of the earth); “On a Method of Measurement of the Heat Conductivity of Metals,” by Professor Hall (which promises to be more accurate than the methods of Forbes, Ängstrom, and others); “On the Velocity of Electric Waves,” by Professor Trowbridge and William Duane. The method employed by the authors is the only direct determination of this velocity which has appeared. The importance of the investigation resides in this. The formation of stationary electric waves along wires which are propagated with the velocity of light is the best evidence that has been adduced of the truth of the electro-magnetic nature of light.
John Trowbridge, s '65.
LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. During the present academic year two important steps have been taken which have served to advance the interests of the Lawrence School. One of these relates to its budget, the other to the conditions of entrance of those who are candidates for the degree. Until the present year the School has always had an independent budget, including the receipts from tuition of those registered in its lists, as well as from those who, being members of the Graduate School, have taken instruction which was paid for by the Lawrence School. To these receipts was added gifts for immediate use and interest on endowments. Owing, however, to the fact that the studies of men in the College and in the School have year by year become more and more in common, it has of late been found practically impossible to make any division between the accounts of the two departments which could be regarded as rational. Therefore, the Corporation have determined to blend these accounts, thus destroying the only important administrative demarcation which has existed of late between these parts of the University. The effect of this blending will be still further to unify the scheme of instruction, especially in all which relates to provisions in the way of laboratories. — There now remain but two distinct differences between the Lawrence School and the College. The School maintains four-year courses of required work, leading to some one of eleven more or less distinct professional careers, while the College has developed a plan of freedom in election of studies. The other difference consists in the smaller amount of preliminary work required of those who enter the Lawrence School. — The last noted difference is one of much importance, as it serves, in a measure, to determine the estimation in which the degree given by the School is held by the public. It is true that the student who obtains the degree from the Lawrence School is required, during his four years of residence, to do considerably more work than is demanded of his comrade who is seeking a like honor from the College. In the opinion of the writer, the man who graduates in Engineering is, as regards the amount of labor which he has devoted to his education, quite the equal of the men who obtain the degree in Arts ; but this judgment is based on a reckoning which we cannot expect the public to make. It therefore seems very important to have such a revision of the conditions for entrance to the Lawrence School as will require of candidates an amount of labor equal in weight to that demanded of the youths who enter the College. — In order to obtain a better knowledge as to the conditions of this problem, the authorities of the School invited to a meeting held at the University in February last, about sixty teachers, principally masters of academies and high schools from eastern Massachusetts and the neighboring parts of other New England States, the object of the meeting being to discuss the question of the entrance requirements of the School from the point of view of those teachers. The meeting was largely attended, fifty-five of the persons invited being present. The results of the conference, which extended to two sessions, showed a remarkable unanimity of opinion, to the effect that the entrance conditions of the School should be made of the same general grade as those which give admission to College ; and that in addition to certain required subjects, substantially those now demanded of candidates for entrance, there should be a considerable number of optional subjects, the examinees being required to choose from these a sufficient number to make their work of preparation equivalent in hours of work to the requirements for entrance to College.
- Acting on the suggestions of the conference, and with a view to extending the advantages to be derived from the plan as widely as possible, the authorities of the University asked the other technical schools of New England to consider with us the means of carrying out this plan. This invitation has been accepted by Yale University, by Tufts College, and by the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Meetings have been held, and, although the inquiry is not yet complete, there is reason to hope that before taking formal action arrangements may be made which will serve to relieve the fitting schools of many of the perplexities which arise from the diversity in the requirements for admission as prescribed by the several institutions. It is not likely that the task of reforming the entrance requirements can be completed before the middle of next year; but it is evident that we are in a fair way to get rid of the last bjectionable difference which exists between the School and the College.
N. S. Shaler, s '62.
THE TREASURER'S STATEMENT. [The following extracts are from the statement of the Treasurer, Mr. E. W. Hooper, for the year ending July 31, 1895. – EDITOR.]
The general investments yielded an income of $284,961.54, or 4.52 per cent., against $305,459.71, or 4.84 per cent. last year. Gifts for capital account amounted to $131,910.66, and for immediate use to $39,149.66; last year they were $129,044.10 and $53,846.22 respectively. The total principal on July 31, 1895, was $8,381,581.82, against $8,367,268.72 a year ago.
“ For the University, College, and Library accounts, taken together, a small increase of income from mere tuition-fees and from new Funds, the new income from Perkins and Conant Halls, and a temporary reduction in usual expenditures, have enabled the Corporation to appropriate from the year's income $22,239.55 towards the heavy cost of the alterations, begun during the year and now nearly completed, in Gore Hall. After adding the income of the Stock Account to its capital to make good in part former deficits, there has been no deficit for 1894–95. For 1893-94 there was a deficit of $518.54, and for the previous year a deficit of $25,181,26.
“For the Divinity School, a large temporary increase of income from the Bussey Trust, and much smaller expenditure for improvements, have left a surplus of $6,396.05. For 1893–94 the surplus was $751.18.
“The Law School with many more tuition-fees, a large temporary increase of income from the Bussey Trust, and somewhat less expenditure, has had a surplus of $24,568.11. For 1893-94 the surplus was $11,134.77.
“ The Medical School has had more tuition-fees and a larger expenditure, with a deficit of $5,123.85. For 1893-94 the deficit was $5,367.73. These deficits are charged against previous accumulations.
“ The Dental School, with many more tuition-fees and much larger outlays, chiefly for instruction and improvements, has had a surplus of $103.17. For 1893-94 the surplus was $3,465.56.
“ The Lawrence Scientific School has had gifts for immediate use and more tuition-fees; but very much larger outlays, chiefly for instruction, apparatus, and improvements, have caused a deficit of $15,356.85. For 1893–94 the deficit was $2,776.78. The indebtedness of the School now amounts to $9,974.43.
“ The Museum of Comparative Zoology has spent all the income of its restricted Funds as required by the conditions of the gift, and has used the surplus income of the Agassiz Memorial Fund, as heretofore, to pay interest upon, and to repay in part, the principal of the advances from the Memorial Fund, which were used to extend the Museum build. ing and to buy fossils.
“For the general account of the Observatory there has been a surplus of $2,271.62. For 1893-94 the surplus was $193.31. Nearly all the income of the Boyden Fund has been used during the year for the expe dition to Peru, and the large gifts from Mrs. Draper, for the special research work of the Draper Memorial, have been mostly spent as heretofore.
“The ordinary income and expenditure of the Bussey Institution have varied little from the previous year, but a readjustment of old income and expense accounts between the Bussey Real Estate and the Bussey Institution has changed the surplus of that year into a deficit of $1,691.65. For 1893–94 there was a surplus of $2,837.96.
“The Veterinary School has again had more tuition-fees and smaller receipts from its Hospital and Forge. No gifts for current use have been received during the year. The deficit has been $2,623.22. For 1893-94 the deficit was $2,762.92. These continued deficits are steadily increasing the debt to the University, which is now so large as to demand serious consideration and speedy action.
“During the year, a new account has been opened for receipts and payments of principal for the Bussey · Woodland Hill' Estate. To this account have been transferred all the amounts heretofore received from the City of Boston and the Boston and Providence Railroad Company for land taken for public uses, and also all sums paid out for improvement of the ‘Muddy River’ lot. The small balance to the debit of the account will soon be more than offset by the sums now due for land recently taken for altering the grade of the Boston and Providence Railroad tracks.
“ To the Bussey Trust has been charged the sum of $18,000 for the payments of capital made during the year to the six surviving children of Mrs. Motley, in accordance with the will of Benjamin Bussey."
The following table summarizes the income and expenses of the various departments and special funds : –
Receipts. Payments. University
$82,251.56 $253,596.24 College :
497,784.87 457,146.25 Library
42,021.03 48,139.12 Divinity School
39,598.19 30,818.34 Law School