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nine members of the Association, the Rev. W. R. Alger, ť ’47, delivered an address on the “Culture of Faith,” and the Rev. Augustus Woodbury, t'49, described "The True Basis of Readjustment."

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The annual meeting was held at noon, June 25, at the office of the
Association. The report of the Treasurer, W. H. Wade, '81, was re-
ceived. Last year's officers were reëlected unanimously, viz. :-

President : Henry Lee, '36, Brookline.

Vice-Presidents : Charles Francis Adams, '56, Lincoln ; James R.
Chadwick, '65, Boston ; Charles J. Bonaparte, '71, Baltimore; Warren
K. Blodgett, '78, Cambridge.

Secretary: Wm. G. Thompson, '88, Cambridge.
Treasurer : Winthrop H. Wade, '81, Boston.

Council : The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretary, and Treasurer, ex-officio, and the following persons by election : For the term ending in 1896 : Wm. E. Russell, '77, Cambridge; William Hooper, '80, Boston; Evert J. Wendell, '82, New York, N. Y. For the term ending in 1897 : Robert T. Lincoln, '64, Chicago, Ill. ; Henry S. Nash, '78, Cambridge; Philip S. Abbot, '90, Cambridge. For the term ending in 1898: James B. Ames, '68, Cambridge; William Lawrence, '71, Cambridge; Henry W. Cunningham, '82, Boston.



At the annual meeting, held on June 25, all the old officers were reelected; the Hon. Richard Olney, l '58, was added to the list of VicePresidents, J. B. Warner, '69, H. W. Putnam, '69, and C. S. Rackeman, L. S., '81, were chosen members of the Council. The meeting voted by a small majority to instruct the Council to persevere in their effort to secure for the alumni of the Law School the same right to vote for Overseers as is now enjoyed by graduates of the College. Sir Frederick Pollock, and John H. Arnold, Librarian of the Law School, were elected honorary members of the Association. J. C. Carter, '50, is president, P. S. Abbot, ’90, treasurer, and L. D. Brandeis, l '77, secretary.

The Law School Association early took steps to convert their triennial dinner into a celebration of Professor Langdell's twenty-five years of service as Dean of the Law School, and the result was in every way memorable. After Sir Frederick Pollock had concluded his oration in Sanders Theatre, the members and guests of the Association proceeded to the Gymnasium, where covers were laid for about five hundred.

J. C. Carter, '50, presided, having on his right Dean Langdell, Chief Justice Fuller, Justice Brown, J. H. Choate, Prof. J. B. Thayer, and Prof. J. B. Ames, and on his left Sir Frederick Pollock, Justice Gray, and S. Kurino, the Japanese ambassador.

President Carter opened the speaking as follows:

“We come to this ancient seat of learning today because we belong to a profession which has no honors except those which spring from learning. We come back to this spot where we received our first personal inspirations, to meet our companions with whom we shared them. We come to this School because it is devoted to the science in which our lives are so much interested. We come to see how it continues to fulfil its lofty mission; we come to encourage those who have its destinies in charge ; we come to look for a moment over the present condition of our common profession, and to glance for another moment over its prospects for the future. I confess, to me it seems, when I look upon it, that one of the most striking circumstances connected with our profession to-day is the prodigious and rapidly increasing numbers of those who are constantly pressing for admission into its ranks. New law schools are multiplying on every side. Every university must be provided with one, every college must be provided with one. The attractive illusion that the practice of the law affords a sure field in which fortune and fame may be secured seems to be very widely prevalent. . .

'In crowding ranks, on every side they rise,

Demanding life, impatient for the skies.' “How is it possible, gentlemen, under such circumstances, to maintain the actual administration of justice in conformity with scientific principles? How is it possible to maintain the honor and dignity of our profession? In no other way, I apprehend, than by cultivating and establishing, in various principal seats of learning, a discipline which shall be able to create and to maintain the highest professional standards, to create a discipline which shall stand as a constant example in every community and in every bar of what the profession of the law is and of what it ought to be. It ought to be in the power of the various schools of the country to send forth to every bar and to every State in the Union some examples which shall suffice to maintain this high standard and which may serve to gain recognition, perhaps all the more easily by contrast.

“ This occasion, gentlemen, has an exceptional feature. The learned, the distinguished — what titles might I not add — the illustrious head of the School closes, this season, a career and a service of 25 years. What that career has been and what that service has been, the world knows. I remember with pride that when the Dane Professorship was last to be filled, President Eliot did me the honor to ask my opinion of the qualifications of Mr. Langdell for that place, who was then a member of the New York bar. My answer was, on the whole, an enthusiastic recommendation, yet not without some expressed misgivings, not certainly concerning his professional qualifications and attainments — for who could doubt those ? — but I did not feel exactly sure how


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kindly he might take to the serene pathways of academic life and to the duties of the office of a teacher. Those misgivings were speedily dispelled. And I have always taken it, if I may be permitted to say, to be a proof of the great sagacity of the distinguished head of the University, that, although not bred in the profession of the law, having no particular knowledge of the course of legal studies, and although the induction of Professor Langdell was not immediately followed by those outward and visible marks or signs which may, or may not, indicate the capacity and competency of a professor, he nevertheless never for a moment doubted the wisdom and the happiness of the selection.

“ And now what has been the result, what the outcome, of this 25 years of effort ? Very many beneficial things. I will mention one only. I do not now speak of those profound and luminous treatises upon the law of contracts and upon equity jurisdiction and procedure with which he has enriched our jurisprudence ; but I think I may say with entire trust that he has, for this country at least, elevated the law by conscious, predetermined effort begun at the outset of his work, - elevated the law, so far as the study of it is concerned, to its true place among the sciences. We have long heard that the law is a science, but we have never before known, as we now know, what kind of science it is, what are the facts with which it is concerned, where those facts are to be found, and how they are to be studied.

“If this were all, this great work would be enough for one life. Of course, it is not to be disguised that the occasion is a somewhat eulogistic one, and all those who know Professor Langdell will easily understand that on this account it may not be altogether acceptable to him ; and he, at least, will rejoice when this day's sun goes down. But if this is the way in which he looks at it, all I can say is, it is all his own fault. He might easily have had it otherwise. All he had to do was to go through an ordinary and perfunctory discharge of his duties. And in that case this tribute would be wanting. But if he was determined to devote his splendid powers and his unrivaled attainments to this School and to the cause of sound legal learning, he should have known thay there would com

ome a day when we were bound to pay to him our debt of admiration and applause. I give you, then, gentlemen, health and long life to Professor Langdell.”

DEAN LANGDELL, '51. “It is difficult to realize that your Association has been in existence only nine years; and the reason is doubtless that we measure time as we do space, by what it contains — that we measure the life of an association by what it has done, as we measure the life of a man by what he has done ; and if we apply this standard to your Association, we shall conclude that it must have had a life of 50 years at least. Indeed, if its work were spread over 50 years, instead of nine years, its record would still be a proud one. It furnishes the most striking illustration of the power of organization within my knowledge.

“The annual catalogue of nine years ago contained the names of only 154 students, while that of the present year contains the names of 404 ; and yet nine years ago the School was open to all applicants, while now all applicants who are not graduates of colleges are required to pass an examination as a

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condition of admission - an examination, too, the requirements of which have been increased by the addition of another language. Nine years ago, also, a student could remain in the School as long as he pleased, whether he did any work or not, while now every student is required, as a condition of remaining in the School, to do work enough in each year to enable him to pass into the next class at the end of that year.

“It was only three years before the formation of your Association that Austin Hall was completed. At that time there was an inclination to laugh at our treasurer for providing so liberal an amount of room in the new building. For he had provided three lecture-rooms in place of the one to which we had hitherto been limited, and one of the three was thought to be absurdly large. He had also provided a students' reading-room of what were thought to be enormous dimensions. When we first moved into the building, fears were entertained that the chief effect would be to expose our poverty and our littleness, and to consume our scanty substance.

“At first we furnished only such portions as we then needed, and the remainder, including the large lecture-room, was closed, to remain closed, as we then supposed, indefinitely; and yet the expense of furnishing swept away nearly the whole of the poor little surplus of a few thousand dollars which we had been painfully accumulating for a rainy day, and the question was anxiously asked, Where is the money coming from to pay the expenses necessarily incident to so large a building ? To all this, the treasurer's answer was that we wanted a building which would meet all the wants of the School for the next 50 years, and that within 50 years we hoped to have a school of 300 students! This was then thought to be a bold prophecy; and yet, at the end of 12 years, we find ourselves with a school of more than 400 students and at our wits' ends to provide room for our absolute necessities.

“ For this unexampled growth and prosperity there is no doubt that your Association is entitled to the chief credit. For the last nine years we have worked on the same lines on which we had been working for the previous 16 years. What we should have accomplished, therefore, during the last nine years, without your aid, may be fairly inferred from what we did accomplish during the previous 16 years. Opening in September, 1870, with 154 students, we crept to 189 in seven years. Then the course was extended from two years to three years, and an examination for admission was made necessary for all candidates for a degree who were not graduates of colleges ; and, in consequence of these two measures, our numbers gradually declined to 131 in 1882, from which point they gradually increased to 154 in 1885. It will be seen, therefore, that up to the date of the organization of your Association, our progress was by short and slow paces, while, since that date, it has been by long and rapid strides.

Nor do we grudge to your Association all the credit for our recent prosperity to which it can possibly lay claim. It would be strange, indeed, if we did, since it is solely for our benefit that your Association exists, and since we reap the fruits of all its labors. The members of your Association all have their own pursuits and their own interests, and these are not at all promoted by the work of the Association. All the time and strength, therefore, which

are expended upon the work of the Association by its members are so much time and strength withdrawn by them from their own pursuits, and devoted to our service. How absurd, then, would it be for us to have a quarrel with you, as to whether you or we have done and are doing most for the advancement of our interests !

“ But this is not all. In praising your Association, we praise ourselves ; for if our present prosperity is largely the work of your Association, it is also true that your Association is itself largely our work. Your Association is only an organization of material which already existed, and for the existence of that material we claim the credit. By material, moreover, is meant not merely a certain number of alumni and the past members of the School ; for the number of these might bave been tenfold greater than it was, and yet the formation of an association like yours might have been impossible. It was not, therefore, the quantity, but the quality of the material that constituted the important consideration. Nor was it a mere question of the possibility of forming an association which by careful nurture would take root, and grow by slow degrees to a vigorous maturity ; for if such had been the limit of possibility, your Association would to-day have nothing better to offer than a promise of future achievement. That it is able, instead, to present such an extraordinary record of actual achievement is due to the fact that you found material, in great abundance and of the finest quality, ready to your hand, and only waiting to be organized. In consequence of this, your Association sprang at once into the full vigor of early manhood, as Minerva sprang, fully armed, from the head of Jupiter.

" In short, while your Association may be justly said to have sown the seed of our present prosperity, and to have cultivated, watched over, and tended the growing crop, while leaving us to reap the harvest, it may also be justly said that it was we who prepared the soil, and that it was due to the laborious care and faithfulness with which we did our work that the seed sown by you took such speedy root, and grew with such lusty vigor. In doing our work, moreover, we were called upon like the husbandman for the constant exercise of the virtues of faith and hope, since, like him, we had to look to a distant and uncertain future for our reward.

“There could not be a better illustration than the present occasion affords of the manner in which your Association avails itself of opportunities, and of the vigor of purpose with which it acts. This distinguished assembly has been convened to celebrate an event of so little importance as my twenty-fifth anniversary as Dane Professor of Law and as Dean of the Law Faculty. It is true that I happen to have been in office a little longer than any of my predecessors, but that it is due entirely to the fact that I was appointed a little earlier in life. Twenty-five years is not likely to be regarded hereafter as a long term of service. Three of my associates have already served twenty years and upwards, and the prospect now is that each of them will have a longer term of service than I shall. It is also true that I am the first dean of the School, and that I have held the office much longer than the office of dean has ever been held in this University by any other person. But the first of these facts is, of course, of no significance whatever, and the second is, as I conceive,


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