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ASSOCIATION OF THE ALUMNI. A small number of graduates attended the annual meeting in Harvard Hall at 1 P. M., on Commencement. Prof. C. E. Norton, '46, presided. The Secretary, Henry Parkman, '70, read the annual report. The following officers for the ensuing year were elected without opposition :

President: Edmund Wetmore, '60, New York.

Vice-Presidents : Robert T. Lincoln, '64, Chicago; Henry S. Huidekoper, '62, Philadelphia ; Charles J. Bonaparte, '71, Baltimore; James B. Thayer, '52, Cambridge ; Oliver Wendell Holmes, '61, Boston ; Marshall S. Snow, '65, St. Louis ; Samuel A. Green, '51, Boston ; Charles Francis Adams, '56, Lincoln; William E. Russell, '77, Cambridge ; Henry Cabot Lodge, '71, Nahant.

Directors : Henry S. Russell, '60, Milton; Arthur Lincoln, '63, Hingham; Bradbury L. Cilley, '58, Exeter; Moses Williams, '68, Brookline; Morris Gray, '77, Newton ; Robert Grant, '73, Boston, Robert H. Gardiner, '76, Newton.

Treasurer : S. Lothrop Thorndike, '52, Cambridge.
Secretary: Henry Parkman, '70, Boston.

Committee to suggest names for Overseers : 1896. Chas. P. Greenough, '64; Chas. K. Cobb, '77; William R. Trask, '85.

1897. John Noble, '50; Arthur Lord, '72; Wm. F. Wharton, '70.

1898. George H. Lyman, '73; Frederic M. Stone, '82; Aug. P. Gardner, '86.

On motion of A. M. Howe, '69, it was voted to suggest to the Directors that it is desirable that speeches at the Commencement dinner be limited to ten minutes each.

It was also voted to authorize A. B. Silsbee, Treasurer of the Class Subscription Fund, to pay, at the present time, to the Corporation any balance in his hands.

DENTAL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. The 24th annual banquet of the Association was held at the Thorndike, Boston, on June 24, with 63 members and guests present. The invited guests were Charles Francis Adams, '56 ; Sherman Hoar, '82, U. S. District Attorney ; M. C. Ayers, Editor of the Boston Advertiser ; the Rev. A. E. Winship, Editor of the Journal of Education ; Victor J. Loring, LL. B.; and W. M. Conant, '79, M. D., Instructor in Anatomy at the Harvard Medical School. Drs. C. H. Abbot, d '85, and Amos I. Hadley, d '91, of Berlin, Germany, Corresponding Secretaries, were also present.

The reports of the various officers were received in their order.

President Dwight M. Clapp, d '82, opened the after-dinner exercises by reading a communication from Prof. C. A. Brackett, d '73, of Newport, R. I., to the Association, expressing appreciation of the services of Prof. T. H. Chandler, '48, Dean of the Dental School, sorrow for his continued illness, and earnest good wishes for his speedy restoration to health. By a unanimous vote this resolution was put on file and a copy, signed by the President and Secretary, sent to Dr. Chandler.

President Clapp first called on Mr. Ayers, who in the course of his remarks stated that “of no class of persons in the world could it be said more truthfully that they did more to alleviate human pain and contribute to human enjoyment than of dentists, and that dentistry, by improving the quality of the teeth, is bound to diminish the terrors of dyspepsia and its baneful effects


mankind.” The Rev. A. E. Winship said “that dentistry was born in America, and that it can be said of no other profession in this country - that in proficiency it here outranks the world.” He further stated that the law and medicine were never trades, but have always been professions. Dentistry, however, was formerly a trade, but has now risen to the rank of a profession.

The Hon. C. F. Adams described two experiences which he had had in his life with dentists, one of them in Summer Street, opposite Old Trinity, thirty-seven years ago, and the other in camp during the war.

The Hon. Sherman Hoar, after much wit, claimed the right for all the Professional Schools of Harvard University to vote for Overseers, saying, “Now Harvard College controls Harvard University, but Harvard University ought to control Harvard University.”

Mr. V. J. Loring spoke of dentistry as the outgrowth of the medical profession, taking its rise in the same roots; the dentist of to-day, he added, is a surgeon.

Dr. Conant spoke earnestly of the importance of so training children physically as to insure their symmetrical development into healthy adults ; for example, language is the result of muscular effort, the centre for language is near the motor-centre in the fissure of Rolando ; but the centre of motion for the fingers and toes is late in its development, and therefore exercises like handwriting and modeling in clay, before these centres are developed, not only give barren results, but are injurious to the child.

Prof. Thomas Fillebrown, d'69, in the absence of Dean Chandler, described the work and progress of the School during the year past, and stated that the entrance examination in 1897 would make either Latin or French obligatory in addition to the present requirements. The

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recent material facilities at the School had perhaps delayed the erection of the new Dental School building. He thought the separation of the Dental from the Medical School ought never to have taken place, believing that the granting of a special degree ought to be abolished, and that dentistry should be regarded as a specialty in the great profession of medicine.

The exercises closed after thrice three rousing cheers for Harvard and for the guests.

The report of Committee on Harvard Dental School was submitted and read by Dr. W. H. Potter, ’78, as follows:

“For a number of years the need of a new school building has been held before our minds. The unsuited and crowded condition of laboratories and operating rooms was evident to the most careful observer; and a very determined effort has been made by your committee of the Faculty to raise the required sum of money. Our efforts have, as you know, been rewarded with substantial success, but the business depression the past two years has prevented our raising as much as we had hoped, for no efforts toward raising money have been made since the winter of 1893. The amount which the committee succeeded in raising ($15,000) is a substantial nest-egg, and is gathering interest yearly, and, even if never added to by further gifts, will some day build a dental school. But your committee do not intend to refrain from further efforts to obtain added donations. With the brighter prospects in the business world, they expect to renew their importunity, and hope at another alumni gathering to tell you of further gains in our building fund account.

“The interests of the School have not been allowed to suffer through an illadapted school building. Last summer extensive improvements were undertaken upon the old building, and with the result that at the present day the Harvard Dental School has well-appointed and light laboratories and operatingrooms, suitable lecture-rooms, and modern plumbing throughout the building. It well-equipped for the work of a dental school and infirmary. The question cannot help arising, Do we need a new building now that the old one has been so well fitted up? This is a question which your committee cannot answer. But it has no doubt as to the need of more money for endowment, if not for a building.

“There are many lines of scientific work which ought to be carried out by a specialist who can give his entire time to his subject, and be wholly free from the distracting cares of a full practice. What problems of local anæsthesia and prophylactic treatment are there not waiting for solution, and how slow we, who are in the heat of practice, are to solve them! Will there not come a time when our School can place these problems, which ought soon to be solved, before skilled men of our profession, and tell them to devote their entire energies to the work. But this means that we must have more money than can be bad from tuition fees, it means that endowment funds must be raised if the School is to be placed in a position to do the highest work. ...

“ A proposition affecting vitally the welfare of the School has been brought

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up during the past year. The proposition is that there be a closer union between the Dental and the Medical Schools. It has even been proposed that the Dental School be merged in the Medical School and the degree of D. M. D. be abolished. This is a radical change, and should receive the careful consideration of the alumni. Is it desirable that we lose our identity as doctors of dental medicine, and become simply doctors of medicine, with the training fitting us to practice dentistry? The committee does not wish to express an opinion upon this subject, but merely to ask every graduate of the School to give the matter personal consideration, and be prepared to advise those who will ultimately decide this important question.

“The work done at the School deserves mention in this report. In the department of operative dentistry there were 2,063 patients treated. The kinds of operations were as follows: Fillings inserted, 4,521; surgical case, disease of the antrum, chronic abscess of the face, epulis removed, necrosis of the jaw, hypertrophy of soft tissues of mouth, and excision of inferior dental nerve - one each. The following work was done in the department of mechanical dentistry: Number of sets of artificial teeth, 536 ; splints for fractured jaws, 8; appliances for cleft palates, 7; splints for cleft palate operations, 2. Orthodontia : Number of sets of teeth regulated, 55 ; number of appliances, 86. Crown and bridge work : Crowns and caps, 37 ; pieces of bridgework, 6 ; specimen crown and bridges, 347. The number of students has increased from 53 in 1893–94 to 63 in 1894–95.

A new departure looking towards a greater usefulness of the School is the establishment of a summer school of eight weeks. The term will begin about July 8 and last for four weeks, and will be continued on August 26 for four weeks.”

The report was signed by Dwight M. Clapp, d '82, William H. Potter, d '85, and Washburn E. Page, d'77.

The committee on Necrology, composed of Drs. Fillebrown, C. H. Taft, '81, and F. S. Hopkins, d '89, presented their resolutions upon the deaths of Frank E. Ward, d '70, of New Bedford, John J. Smith, d '93, of Warren, R. I., Charles 0. Cummings, d '93, of Worcester, George L. Mason, d '74, of New York, N. Y., and George T. Moffatt, m'60, of Boston. These various resolutions as presented were adopted by the Association, and a copy sent to the respective families of the deceased.

The Council were instructed to appoint a committee for recommending a D. M. D. to the Governor for appointment on the Board of Registration in Dentistry

President Clapp, the retiring president, spoke of the faithfulness and efficient service and harmony among the members of the Council in the transaction of all business during the year.

The election of officers resulted as follows:
President: James Shepherd, d '85.
Vice-President: Frank Perrin, d '77.

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Secretary: Waldo E. Boardman, d '86.
Treasurer: Washburn E. Page, d'77.

Executive Committee: W. E. Boardman, chairman, W. P. Cooke, d' 81, Patrick W. Moriarty, d '89.

The above-named officers compose the Council.

On July 10 the Council reëlected the Committee on the Harvard Dental School, viz. :

Drs. Dwight M. Clapp, chairman, W. H. Potter, and W. E. Page ; and the Committee to nominate a member of the State Board of Registration in Dentistry, viz. : Drs. H. L. Upham, d '86, chairman, J. E. Stanton, d '84, E. H. Smith, d '74, E. C. Briggs, d'78, and J. T. Paul, d'91.

Waldo E. Board

man, d '86, Sec.


DIVINITY SCHOOL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. The Association met in the chapel of Divinity Hall at 2 o'clock P. M., June 25, Pres. E. J. Young, '48, in the chair. Prayer was offered by the Rev. Augustus Woodbury, of Concord, N. H. The report of last year's meeting was then read by the Secretary, the Rev. J. L. Seward, '68, of Allston, and unanimously approved. A Nominating Committee of three was appointed by the Chair to nominate officers for 1895–96. The Chair appointed the Revs. T. D. Howard, '48, of Charlestown, N. H., E. C. Guild, '53, of Pembroke, and B. F. McDaniel, t '69, of Newton Centre. This committee nominated the following list of officers, who were unanimously elected :

President: W. O. White, '40, of Brookline.
Vice-President : S. B. Stewart, t '62, of Lynn.
Secretary: J. L. Seward, '68, of Allston.

Business Committee : S. C. Beane, '61, of Newburyport, E. C. Guild, '53, of Pembroke, W. H. Fish, Jr., '65, of Dedham.

The Rev. William H. Furness, '20, of Philadelphia was chosen first speaker, and the Rev. S. C. Beane, of Newburyport, second speaker,

for 1896. The Rev. C. C. Everett, t '59, Dean of the Divinity School Faculty, by request gave an account of the School during the preceding year. There have been 52 names on the student list. The work of the year has been eminently satisfactory. Only 19 of the students were professed Unitarians, which shows the unsectarian character of the School. There has been an usual amount of sympathy among the students. At the beginning of the year the old students gave a reception to the new ones.

After the necrology for the year had been read, showing the death of

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