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$192,140 less for labor, than in 1842. These two items make $504,140 per annum, which, on the aggregate capital, $8,900,000 of the eight mills, is 5 per cent. per annum, and they divide from 20 to 30 per cent. It is observable, that the increased speed of improved machinery produces this increase of cloth with less manual labor. In other employments, as iron, coal, &c., the extra labor cannot be dispensed with, and any enhanced production necessarily requires more manual labor in handling and transporting, more canal boats, more coasting tonnage, more rail cars, more carts, &c., and it is through increased production, at low prices, that labor only can obtain its share of profit. In a speech of the Hon. Daniel Webster, made in 1820, he remarked:

"Manufacturing capital comes, in the end, to be owned but by few. It does not, therefore, encourage industry, like capital employed in some other pursuits. The case of the establishment mentioned in the report was in point to this argument. Half a million of dollars gives employment to two hundred and sixty-five persons, and those principally women and children. Now, what employment of that sum, in almost any other pursuit, could fail to demand and require more human labor? If vested in agriculture, the sum would command good and productive land sufficient to employ, he might almost say, all the cotton-spinners in the United States."

This all must feel, as no doubt he himself felt, to be true. But we would now call attention to the reasoning contained in a speech of the same gentleman, in Philadelphia, at a public meeting, held December 2d, 1846:

“Gentlemen, on the Tariff I have spoken so often, and so much, that I am sure that no gentleman wishes me to utter the word again. There are some things, however, worth while to remember. Of all countries in the world, England for centuries was the most tenacious in adhering to her protective principles, both in matters of commerce and manufacture.

"She has of late years relaxed, and found her position could afford somewhat of free trade. She is skilful-she has vast machinery-she has a dense population-a cheaply working, because badly fed and badly clothed population. She can run her career, therefore, in free trade: we cannot, unless willing to become badly fed and badly clothed also."

Is not bad food and bad clothing the legitimate result of the "tenacious adherence to protective principles for centuries," producing small quantities at high prices, as the Courier states? England, by protection, has accumulated large capital, skill and "vast machinery," but her people are "badly fed" and "badly clothed." That this is the result of "protection" is selfevident; and Mr. Webster, in 1820, after giving a glowing description of the miseries of the manufacturing population of England, and the happiness of agricultural life in New-England, remarked:

"He knew that he was speaking upon what might be thought the remote effect of these great establishments, (manufactories.) Yet not so remote, perhaps, as we may imagine. If the system (protective) be established and adhered to, which he could not believe until he should see it, the effects will not be tardy in their arrival. Two generations, in his opinion, would change the whole face of New-England society."

He now advises the course which he then predicted would result in misery to the many, and which he now admits is the consequence to England, for centuries of adherence to the same system. He states that England, by protection, having reduced the people to the utmost misery, may now pursue free trade! Is it not better to adopt it before such miseries are produced? In Boswell's Life of Johnson, may be found this anecdote: "No, Sir, you are not to talk such paradox let me have no more on't. It cannot entertain, far less can it instruct. Lord Monboddo, one of your Scotch judges, talked a great deal of such nonsense. I suffered him, but I will not suffer you." Boswell.-"But, Sir, does not Rousseau talk such nonsense?" Johnson." True, Sir, but Rousseau knows he is talking nonsense, and laughs at the world for staring at him."

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Boswell.-"How so, Sir." Johnson.-" Why, Sir, a man who talks nonsense so well, must know that he is talking nonsense. But I am afraid Monboddo does not know that he is talking nonsense." Boswell.—“Is it wrong, then, Sir, to affect singularity, in order to make people stare?" Johnson." Yes, if you do it by propagating error."

The great fact that increased quantities, at lower prices, necessarily flow from the absence of that protection which ensures high prices to a restricted supply, is peculiarly manifest in the state of the shipping interest of the United States. It is a remarkable fact, that the whole tonnage of the U. S. employed, in 1845, in the foreign commerce of 26 states, of 814,810 square miles' area, and 20,000,000 people, is scarcely so large as was that employed in the trade of the 13 old states, of 474,000 miles area and 6,000,000 people in 1810. That is to say, the tonnage of the U. S. registered in the foreign trade in 1810, was 984,269 tons, and in 1846, 937,019 tons. Thirty-five years of progress as a nation has diminished our maritime commerce 47,250 tons! and now, when Europe requires large quantities of produce, and U. S. farmers have as great supplies to send, the trade is strangled for want of shipping. The cost of transportation absorbs the proceeds of the sales, and the farmer is no better off than before. The causes of this strange result are very evident to those who have considered the course of our foreign policy. Protection has diminished the quantities to be sold, and therefore the demand for means of transportation. From 1789 to 1809, we enjoyed an almost uninterrupted commerce, under duties and charges so low as scarcely to be felt. The peculiar facilities of the colonies for ship-building had long made the manufacturing of ships profitable, in spite of the opposition of the mother country; and the building of ships for sale, in England, was a large branch of trade. When the close of the revolutionary war threw the commerce of the world open to the trade of the 13 old states, there being no "protective" burdens upon industry at home, Congress not having learned to meddle with private pursuits, under the pretence of "protecting home industry," the enterprise of the United States carried commerce to a great magnitude. New-England and the Atlantic states were agricultural in their pursuits, and Europe afforded advantageous markets, inasmuch as that the return of goods in payment for farm produce was not, for protective purposes, prohibited. Large exports of agricultural produce required a great deal of tonnage to transport it. Shipwrights, timber merchants, riggers, cordage makers, hemp growers, stevedores, and all connected with commerce, were in great requisition. Why? Because the farmers had large quantities of produce to be transported to Europe. In one year, 1789, the exports to France alone, were as follows:

.140,959

Rice, tierces,........24,680......Flour, barrels,..
Wheat, bushels,...3,664, 176......Rye and Barley, bushels,..1,079,153

This was the produce of the Atlantic states. The Connecticut and Hudson rivers alone furnished these quantities of grain and flour; and so large a quantity has not been furnished since the war, by the 26 states having the mighty Mississippi and its tributaries on the west and south, with the long lake coast on the north united by the Erie Canal and the Hudson, to supply it. In those days the agricultural interests prospered, because they had open markets for the sale of the products of their industry; and the prosperity of the shipping interest placed at their command a sufficiency of tonnage to transport them at low freights. In those years flour was seldom less than $8 per bbl., and never under $6; as a consequence, the farms on the Hudson, the Connecticut and the Delaware were valuable property, and their owners acquired fortunes, which have not only ceased to accumulate, but have dwindled before the swelling dividends of corporate factories, since commerce has been sacrificed for manufactures.

In

year,

The annexation of the Floridas and Louisiana has added an immense seacoast to the Union, but the shipping has not increased.* It is to be remarked, however, that, owing to various improvements and the general peace, vessels perform voyages in much less time than was required thirty years ago. 1807 the registered tonnage was 984,269, and the tons entered in the 1,088,876, being but little more than an average of one voyage per annum. The registered tonnage in 1846 was 937,901, and there entered in the year, 2,151,114 tons, being a little more than two voyages in the year. This increase of trade has barely sufficed to transport the increasing crops of cotton. In 1807 the cotton exported was equal to 50,000 tons measurement; in 1845 it was equal to 750,000 tons, which leaves but an increase of 300,000 tons for all the remaining business of the Union. The consequence of this state of affairs is that strangulation of trade now presented for want of shipping. The demands of Europe for farm produce are immense, and the surplus ready to be sent forward is equal to them, yet there is no adequate means of transportation. The exports of the two articles of wheat and corn from the port of New-York alone, from January 1 to November 24, were 270,091 quarters more than last year, and required 40,000 tons of shipping for the transportation. As, however, the insurance companies refuse to take risks on a vessel loaded more than half with grain in bulk, it requires 80,000 tons. This extra demand had the effect of raising freights to such an exorbitant rate, as to deprive the farmer of all benefit from the foreign demand. Ships charged 30 cents a bushel for grain, and $1 32 for a barrel of flour. The inland freights were no less exorbitant, by reason of the press of business, with an inadequate supply of the means of transportation. Of what benefit is it to the Ohio farmer that flour is $7 in Liverpool, if it costs $4 to get it there? This inadequacy of means has resulted necessarily and directly from the discouragement of commerce under the protective system.

Prior to 1828 the amount of tonnage lost at sea, condemned and sold to foreigners, was not deducted from the amount annually reported registered. In 1829 that deduction took place to the extent of 156,315

TABLE SHOWING THE REGISTERED TONNAGE EMPLOYED IN THE FOREIGN TRADE AND WHALING-THE ENROLLED AND LICENSED EMPLOYED IN COASTING TRADE, FISHERIES AND STEAMBOATS.

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1830..
1831. ..538,136.
1832. ...614,121.
1833.. ..648,968.
1834.. ..749,378.
1835.......
.788,181.
1836... ..753,094..

.537,564.

....38.911.

.453,926.. ..63,052.

..82,315..
..72,868.

..101,158.

1837.......683,206.

1838.. ..702,962.

..702,399..

1839.......

1840..

.752,838.

1841.......788,398..

1842.... .825,746..

......

84,278. .74,846..

54,036.....101,796..

.98,322.

....

873,437 ..992,686

.610,654

.615,300

.751,325 ....752,454 .856,122

.575,087...... ...62,568.. 107,670... .558,995......90,632. ....102,832. .642,892.. .101,306. 111,924. ..108,060.......661,144.....122,474.....117,850........ ..901,468

..97,640. ..665,120.....127,181.....136,817.

...144.680.......727,921.....145,102..... .111,304..

..127,241.

.929,118 ..984 327

803,320 ..153,660. 129,257.. .1,086,237 .119,629.......850.473.....190,632.. 131,942. .1,173,047

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.131,845. .963,673. .189,878..... .108,682......1,262,233
..136,926.. ...978,510.. .198,184.....104,304......1,280,998
..157,405.. ...932,725.....174,342..... 77,873......1,184,930
.151,612.
820,704. .225,049..... 71,278......1,117,031

1843.......851,551. .5,373....152,374.......844,661..... .231,494..... 73,142...... 1,149,297 1844....... .893,561....6,909....168,293.

.844,345.. .265,269.....101,715, ..1,211,319

1845.......897,985....6,491....190,695.......903,691.....319,527......98,610..

1846.......937,019....6,286....186,980.......948,264.....341,606.....108,979..

..1,321 828 ..1,399,290

registered, 313,832 enrolled; and in 1830 a further reduction of 63,108 tons registered, and 26,199 enrolled, was made. These reductions are apparent in the table. Such a reduction had previously been made in 1818, and the figures for 1821 are nearly accurate. After the year 1828 the reduction was made annually, and allowance made for enrolled vessels that took out registers. The only actual decrease in tonnage is in the bounty-fed cod and mackerel fisheries. In the nineteen years embraced in the table, this branch of industry received from the government $5,700,000 in bounties, or more than the value of the whole tonnage in the business!-a remarkable instance of the evil influence of protection; all the other branches of commerce, particularly the whaling and steam interests, were exposed to onerous protective taxes on iron, cordage, &c. The whaling tonnage, under every disadvantage, has increased 700 per cent.; and the tonnage employed in the foreign trade has grown 40 per cent., while the coasting tonnage, including sloops and canal boats, has but doubled in a period when the population and surface of settled country has doubled and trade quadrupled.— When we reflect that, according to the census, out of 5,000,000 active persons in the United States, 3,700,000 are employed in the production of bulky articles of transportation, and that necessarily every additional bushel of grain, bale of cotton, ton of coal, or hhd. of tobacco produced, must enhance the demand for inland tonnage, if there is any market to which to send it, we become struck with the importance of cheap transportation. If there is no market, or the expense of sending thither is too great, there is no transportation. In the period embraced in the table, the Erie Canal has been built, and from 1825 to 1845 its business increased to 1,977,565 tons. The arrivals of produce at New-Orleans, from the western states, have more than quadrupled, and the steam tonnage on the lakes and western waters vastly increased. At the south the crop of cotton has increased from 700,000 to 2,400,000 bales, requiring 500,000 tons of internal tonnage additional; or, to recapitulate these items, cotton has increased 1,400,000 bales, equal to 280,000 tons weight; Pennsylvania coal 2,500,000 tons; and Erie Canal tonnage, say 2,000,000 in round numbers-making of three items an aggregate of 4,780,000 tons more transportation than in 1825! All these elements have failed to add to the coasting tonnage more than 400,000 tons for the whole Union; this is partly owing to the greater activity of vessels and to railroads. The Reading Railroad carries nearly half the coal. The reason is very apparent, in the burdens that ship-builders have been subjected to, under the tariff, on the materials employed, and the discouragement the employment of ships has met with from the operation of the tariff, in not only taking from them their home freights, but by gradually discouraging exports. Navigation, which is simply the transportation of articles to be sold and goods brought back in exchange, cannot exist where the government avowedly enacts laws to prevent that exchange. In the first place, in relation to ship-building, the following is a statement of the dutiable material used in the construction of a ship of 500 tons, with the English duties as compared with those of the United States :

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN duties on thE MATERIAL OF A SHIP OF 500 TONS.

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The American builder suffers a tax of $1,842, or $3 50 per ton more than the British ship-manufacturer on the same articles; and this is done by Congress to "protect" him! The dear ships of the U. States are sent upon the ocean loaded with a tax four times as large as that on British ships, to compete with them. They, it appears, are in consequence forced to come home with a coal ballast. After the vessels are built, they are to be employed, and Congress enacts a tariff avowedly to prevent foreign goods from coming into the country in competition with those of domestic growth. Here, then, is one-half of the means of employing the shipping sought to be cut off.— Gradually it is found, that as the proceeds of produce sold abroad cannot be got back on favorable terms, less is exported; the other half of the business begins to decline, freights fall, and vessels are sold to foreigners and cease to be built. The cotton trade has alone maintained the external commerce of the Union for the last twenty years; and now, when a demand for tonnage to transport farm produce springs up, it cannot be obtained in adequate supply. The progress of ship-building in the United States, and the quantity annually sold abroad to foreigners, lost at sea and condemned, is seen in the annexed compilation from the careful reports of the Treasury Department.*

It is remarkable in this table, that the only years in which there was an actual decrease of tonnage, were the first two years of the operation of the tariff of 1828, viz.: in 1829 and 1830, and in 1843, when the present tariff came into operation. This is, at least, a most remarkable coincidence. It is further observable, that in 1828-'9, the sales of ships to foreigners were much larger than usual; and in 1843, they were 16 per cent. larger than in 1842, the new tariff having diminished their employment. In 1840-'1, the tonnage sold to foreigners was larger, because the Russian and Mexican vessels, built here by order of those governments, went to swell the amount. The tonnage built in 1843 was smaller in that year than in any one year since 1829. The anti-commercial policy of the Government in 1843, and the indirect taxes upon ship building, discouraged the construction of vessels, either for sale or employment. Again, it is observable that when a modification of the tariff, on compromise principles, became certain in 1832, the process of ship building went on with a vigor greater than ever. The same result was apparent after the election of 1844. Let us now turn to the enrolled tonnage, and we shall find the same features presented in a most remarkable manner. In the year 1829, the first of the operation of the tariff of 1823, a smallest amount of tonnage was built than in any year of the series down to 1843, the first of the operation of the

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