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accumulated acquire advantage arise bour bourers capital capitalist cause of production chap chapter circulating capitals circumstances classes of labourers commodities common labour consequence considerable consume corn cultivation distinct dities division of labour doctrine duction effects employed employment endeavour equal Essay on Population established exchange exchangeable value existence farther greater human improvement increase individual industry instruments land laws less Lord Lauderdale lower classes Malthus mankind manner means measure of value ment moral cause natural natural price necessarily necessary object observed particular perhaps persons Political Economy portion possession principle procure produced by labour profit of stock proportion proprietors purchase quantity of labour quitrent rate of profit raw produce regard rent revenue Ricardo saving says Dr Smith society sort species subsistence supply supposed taxes thing tion trade unproductive labour vendible wages of labour Wealth of Nations whole
Página 156 - By necessaries I understand, not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
Página 23 - THERE IS ONE SORT of labour which adds to the value of the subject upon which it is bestowed: there is another which has no such effect.
Página 203 - Equal quantities of labour, at all times and places, may be said to be of equal value to the labourer. In his ordinary state of health, strength and spirits; in the ordinary degree of his skill and dexterity, he must always lay down the same portion of his ease, his liberty, and his happiness.
Página 11 - ... value in exchange ; and on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange have frequently little or no value in use. Nothing is more useful than water: but it will purchase scarce anything; scarce anything can be had in exchange for it.
Página 315 - THE whole of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal or continually tending to equality.
Página 10 - the word Value has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called value in use; the other value in exchange.
Página 235 - The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, to which the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating. Different accidents may sometimes keep them suspended a good deal above it, and sometimes force them down even somewhat below it. But whatever may be the obstacles which hinder them from settling in this center of repose and continuance, they are constantly tending towards it.
Página 76 - ... make twenty. But in the way in which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part are likewise peculiar trades.
Página 74 - Secondly, the advantage which is gained by saving the time commonly lost in passing from one sort of work to another, is much greater than we should at first view be apt to imagine it. It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another; that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools.