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BOOK machines as the fhip of the failor, the mill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us confider only what a variety of labour is requifite in order to form that very fimple machine, the shears with which the fhepherd clips the wool. The miner, the builder of the furnace for smelting the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made ufe of in the smelting-house, the brick-maker, the bricklayer, the workmen who attend the furnace, the mill-wright, the forger, the fmith, muft all of them join their different arts in order to produce them. Were we to examine, in the fame manner, all the different parts of his drefs and household furniture, the coarfe linen shirt which he wears next his skin, the shoes which cover his feet, the bed which he lies on, and all the different parts which compofe it, the kitchen-grate at which he prepares his victuals, the coals which he makes ufe of for that purpose, dug from the bowels of the earth, and brought to him perhaps by a long fea and a long land carriage, all the other utenfils of his kitchen, all the furniture of his table, the knives and forks, the earthen or pewter plates upon which he ferves up and divides his victuals, the dif ferent hands employed in preparing his bread and his beer, the glass window which lets in the heat and the light, and keeps out the wind and the rain, with all the knowledge and art requifite for preparing that beautiful and happy invention, without which these northern parts of the world could fcarce have afforded a very


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comfortable habitation, together with the tools CHA P. of all the different workmen employed in producing those different conveniences; if we examine, I fay, all these things, and confider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be fenfible that without the affiftance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meaneft perfon in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to, what we very falfely imagine, the eafy and fimple manner in which he is commonly accommodated. Compared, indeed, with the more extravagant luxury of the great, his accommodation must no doubt appear extremely fimple and eafy; and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation of an European prince does not always fo much exceed that of an induftrious and frugal peafant, as the accommodation of the latter exceeds that many an African king, the abfolute master of the lives and liberties of ten thousand naked favages.



Of the Principle which gives occafion to the Divi


fion of Labour.


HIS divifion of labour, from which fo CHA P. many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which forefees and intends that general opulence to

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BOOK which it gives occafion. It is the necessary, though very flow and gradual, confequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no fuch extenfive utility; the propenfity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another.

Whether this propenfity be one of those original principles in human nature, of which no further account can be given; or whether, as feems more probable, it be the neceffary confequence of the faculties of reafon and speech, it belongs not to our prefent fubject to enquire. It is common to all men, and to be found in no other race of animals, which feem to know neither this nor any other species of contracts. Two greyhounds, in running down the fame hare, have fometimes the appearance of acting in fome fort of concert. Each turns her towards his companion, or endeavours to intercept her when his companion turns her towards himself. This, however, is not the effect of any contract, but of the accidental concurrence of their paffions in the fame object at that particular time. Nobody ever faw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with another dog. Nobody ever faw one animal by its geftures and natural cries fignify to another, this is mine, that yours; I am willing to give this for that. When an animal wants to obtain fomething either of a man or of another animal, it has no other means of perfuafion but to gain the favour of thofe whofe fervice it requires. A puppy fawns upon its dam, and a spaniel endea


vours by a thousand attractions to engage the CHA P. attention of its mafter who is at dinner, when it wants to be fed by him. Man fometimes uses the fame arts with his brethren, and when he has no other means of engaging them to act according to his inclinations, endeavours by every fervile and fawning attention to obtain their good will. He has not time, however, to do this upon every occafion. In civilized

fociety he ftands at all times in need of the co-operation and affiftance of great multitudes, while his whole life is fcarce fufficient to gain the friendship of a few perfons. In almost every other race of animals each individual, when it is grown up to maturity, is intirely independent, and in its natural ftate has occafion for the affiftance of no other living creature. But man has almoft conftant occafion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can intereft their felf-love in his favour, and shew them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another a bargain of any kind, propofes to do this: Give me that which I want, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning of every fuch offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of thofe good offices which we ftand in need of. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard

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BOOK regard to their own intereft. We addrefs ourI. felves, not to their humanity but to their felflove, and never talk to them of our own neceffities but of their advantages. Nobody but a beggar chufes to depend chiefly upon the benevolence of his fellow-citizens. Even a beggar does not depend upon it entirely. The charity of well-difpofed people, indeed, fupplies him with the whole fund of his fubfiftence. though this principle ultimately provides him with all the neceffaries of life which he has occafion for, it neither does nor can provide him with them as he has occafion for them. The greater part of his occafional wants are supplied in the fame manner as thofe of other people, by treaty, by barter, and by purchase. With the money which one man gives him he purchases food. The old cloaths which another bestows upon him he exchanges for other old cloaths which fuit him better, or for lodging, or for food, or for money, with which he can buy either food, cloaths, or lodging, as he has occafion.

As it is by treaty, by barter, and by purchase, that we obtain from one another the greater part of thofe mutual good offices which we ftand in need of, fo it is this fame trucking difpofition which originally gives occafion to the divifion of labour. In a tribe of hunters or fhepherds a particular perfon makes bows and arrows, for example, with more readiness and dexterity than any other. He frequently exchanges them for cattle or for venifon with his companions;


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