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His pupil and successor was Giovanni Maggini, working probably between 1590 and 1640. His violins were not great improvements on those of his teacher. Attention was directed to Maggini's productions by De Beriot, who used one of his fiddles in concert work. Being played by so great an artist, the price of this make increased considerably.

It is to the old town of Cremona in Lombardy, north Italy, that we must look for the culmination of violin making. Cremona was in those days a center of musical and artistic activity. Numerous wealthy monasteries in the neighborhood afforded ample financial encouragement to the musicians, artists and instrument makers. This circumstance, combined with another equally favorable, the ample supply of the proper material in the immediate neighborhood, gave full scope to the Cremona school of violin makers. W. FRANCIS GATES.

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In Chicago, and several other cities, the press has lately been making a commotion upon the so-called "fads" in the public schools—including in the general term practically all studies but the "three R's" of a primitive education. The fight is being made in Chicago against German, drawing, sloyd, modeling in clay, and physical culture.

These several departments have been created one after another and put in charge of a certain number of special superintendents with the proper retinue of assistants, and the work is carried forward along with the other studies. The general questions involved are very serious, and their proper solution would take us to the very foundation of the concept of a public school education. That all these branches are desirable in themselves (excepting perhaps clay modeling, where the clay passing among many ill-kempt hands is liable to breed malignant skin diseases) no one will question. Nor is there any sound reason in the principle so generally laid down by the daily press, at times of "reform " like the present, that the state has no right to use public moneys for educating a child beyond the most elementary and general branches, want of which might invalidate his value as a voter. This principle covers only a part of the ground. It is true that the state's first duty is to educate the voter so that he can read his ballot and perhaps cast it intelligently. But there is more involved in the common school idea.

Rightly understood, the common school is a co-operative movement, through which property is taxed in order that education may be placed within reach of every child, without question as to his possessing property. Only in this way is it possible to make opportunity for the children of the poor to rise to the higher levels of modern life. Any child, whose parents can spare him from aiding in the support of the family, under a sound common school system with its proper

appendages (the high school and college, all free as the primary school), can go on and acquire an education, and become, if his talent permits, a great scientist or inventor. He can become cultivated, in the sense of appreciating the literature and mind of his native land, and can also acquire the trained use of his mind, upon which his rise in the world may later depend. Moreover, this is not altogether a question of the popularity or non-popularity of the higher education. No matter if not more than one child in a thousand goes on to these highest reaches of education, the opportunity must be placed within reach of this thousandth child. whose genius may repay the community for many years' expense in maintaining these higher advantages.

The foregoing, however, is not altogether to be taken as an indorsement of the modern graded school. The vice of the public schools, especially in cities where they are "superintended" in the modern and complicated way, is that they presume that all the children will go through the entire course. The course is made with reference to a school course of twelve years. Accordingly, certain studies are postponed until late in the course, in consideration of the late period of maturing of certain mental faculties; and others are spread over four or five years, irrespective of the consideration that only about one pupil in a thousand will reach the higher parts of the course, while, nevertheless, the study thus spread out may form part of the most elementary concept of an education. This is the very head and front of the offending of the common school. The course is interminable. There is no provision made for giving those pupils, whose circumstances do not permit their remaining in school past their twelfth or thirteenth year, such a command of the elementary branches as they need, and as in fact they might very well acquire if their attention were concentrated upon them, and the course permitted their advancing as fast as their powers would take them. The extent of the evil lying concealed in the educational courses of the large cities, in the latter respect, is too great to be traced at this time; but suffice it to say that it amounts to a gross injustice to a very deserving class of pupils.

Again, it is not altogether conclusive as to the propriety or non-propriety of maintaining instruction in a foreign language, or in these fancy studies, that few, if any, of the pupils get a really working knowledge of them. German pupils cannot speak; drawing pupils cannot draw off-hand, and the clay-modeling pupils are not able to model in clay very simple objects of their environment. Still it may happen that in the time devoted to these imperfectly mastered branches, the pupil's mind has broadened, and his general concepts may have been extended to a degree compensating for the time consumed. This, most likely, is the general effect of the studies. But there still remains the question of delaying those pupils whose education must needs be completed by their twelfth or thirteenth year. As to the latter class, the community cannot afford to permit them to be ignored. For, when all is said and done, the common school is a co-operation in the interests of the poorer classes, and just as soon as the leaven of the Pharisees begins to work at the expense of the rights of this weaker class, the system needs reforming. Such a time has come in the Chicago schools for a dozen years past, nor is there any more likelihood of the problem being solved finally at the present time than earlier. It is evident that the common school system needs to go upon two legs, so to say: One course, with whatever apportionment of rooms and teachers experience shows to be necessary, for the complete course, in which the first steps have in view the ultimate high school and college: and another set of rooms and teachers, in which the course is planned with reference to giving all these pupils who must stop school at twelve, the most complete education possible before that time. Very likely it would not be necessary for the first two years to show any differences. The children would all be young and inexperienced. But at the third year the division would begin, and the next four years of the summary course would include all of those common branches now embraced up to and including the first year of the high school. This would not require cramming on the part of the pupils. It would merely require concentration of attention, and the elimination of all the extras, which, while not harm

ful in themselves take up time which the shortened school hours cannot sacrifice without losing the power of completing this ideal abbreviated course, which would, if accomplished, be of such value to the class for which it is intended. In practical application it will be found that the two courses would be needed in different sections of the city. In certain districts, where laboring men, live the short course would be the normal. And as there would be more to do here in a given time, and as the material is also not quite so easily managed as in the more cultured divisions of the city, all the best teachers, with sharp and well trained minds and selfforgetful enthusiasm, would be assigned to this part of the work, leaving only the surplus of this class for the more advanced schools. Ultimately, of course, some superintendent or board of education will devise a system of examination which will result in admitting to the ranks of teachers only that comparatively small class which possesses the proper mental composition for a teacher, in respect to the qualities mentioned above. But this is to anticipate.

What then will become of our German language and our music? The German will go. Not because it is not a good idea to include it in a common school course. It is distinctly advantageous for a student to acquire a foreign tongue; indeed, every high school graduate ought to be able to converse and read easily in at least two modern languages besides his own. These very naturally would be French and German, in a great majority of cases, because in one or the other of these two languages is available the most important part of that division of the world's wisdom which has not yet found its way into English. This division is yearly becoming smaller, through the constant enlargement of English literature by the translation of every foreign book of real value. But new results of investigation have to remain for some time in the language originally embodying them, until their value or public interest has been shown sufficient to warrant their translation. Living thought will always require of its votary at least two living languages, besides his own; when one has two foreign languages he can easily learn any others that he may find necessary.

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