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It would seem as though the first notes in the bass, in the piano part (first measure G-G) might better be an octave higher G-g, thus giving the passage more of a minuet-like swing.

The Menuetto II, which corresponds to the trio of the Haydn-Mozart period, also possesses good ear-marks easily remembered:

3 -P4

9:3

-94

It is curious to note that, although the key is G minor, Bach has placed but one flat in the signature, the E flat being added as an accidental. This mode of procedure is similar to that applied by the old masters to the clarinette notation, where never more than one flat or sharp was written in the signature, no matter what the key might be; the remaining flats and sharps being placed before the individual notes to be lowered or raised.

After Menuetto II, the Mennetto I is repeated.

Last, but by no means least, comes the gigue previously referred to:

Allegro.

The succession of chords in the first measure is less Schumannic than

(witness, for instance, the first and third measures of the finale of the D minor symphony).

Again, it seems strange that the melodic sequences in the 'cello part (measures 5 and 6), are not carried out in the har monies also. One chord only need be changed to effect this:

But Bach is responsible for the most singular feature of all, and that is the conclusion of the first section (in the twelfth measure) in D minor. This close in the minor dominant of a major key is a little trying to modern ears.

The succeeding section begins in D major, and this shows that the master's object, in closing the first part as he did, was to save the major dominant as a novelty, so to speak. How mightily hard pressed for new cadences would a modern composer become by the time he reached the last movement of a suite, were he to confine himself as religiously to the main key as did Bach!

Considering the piquancy of the themes and their elaboration, together with the harmonization by Schumann, this production of two of Germany's greatest composers is one of the most interesting of chamber works.

Whatever may be the nature of the remaining suites, it is to be hoped that Frau Schumann, whose ability as a composer, coupled with her experience as editor of her husband's works, renders her especially adapted for the undertaking, may find the necessary time and inclination to revise the arrangement here considered.

By so doing she will enrich a department of musical literature which has flourished but feebly of late.

EDGAR STILLMAN KELLEY.

A SUCCESSFUL CHORUS CHOIR.

There are several reasons why a chorus choir is the most satisfactory method of furnishing the singing for church servicc, but the difficulties attending it are very great, if a high standard of musical merit is desired in the performances. The advantages of a chorus choir are found in the scope it gives for employing advantageously all the good voices and musical dispositions of the congregation; it is also possible to reach a better musical result with this kind of choir than with an inferior quartette. But the difficulties attending the maintenance of a chorus choir at any very high degree of efficiency are also very great. It is a burden to require of the members unvarying attendance at church. Even the deacons now and then take a Sunday off, and why should not the singers, who as a rule are not deacons, also take their little vacation? To this question no answer can be given by the average outsider, but the leader of the choir will quickly remind us that when one or two good singers plan to take a Sunday off, it is very likely to happen when some special reason requires their attendance. Moreover, when it is made a point of honor to ask permission when one would stay away, it brings out the obligation of attendance in the strongest light, and places the leader in the disadvantageous position of having to forego his own natural preferences for retaining efficient help, in favor of a singer taking a day of idleness. And in whatever manner these little difficulties may be overcome, no one who has watched the administration of a chorus choir for a series of years but will admit that the situation has its trials for singers and leaders alike. The celebrated chorus choirs, where a large number of singers unite to give good music in a serious spirit, and continue together for a series of years, will be found upon investigation to owe their success to exceptional personal qualities in the musical leader, or in some others of those concerned in

the administration. So it was with the first choir of this kind which attained a national reputation, that of Lowell Mason, Boston, in 1830 and later. So it was with the chorus choir which Dr. H. R. Palmer led in the second Baptist church, in Chicago, for some years, and so it was with a

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chorus choir which the late J. A. Butterfield led in Centenary M. E. church for five years from 1869.

One of the most successful chorus choirs at present in service, is that belonging to the Peddie Memorial church in the city of Newark, N. J., led by the distinguished organist

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