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49. Using the above classification as a key, one can determine the predominance of forcible or mild elements or their equilibrium in any tune by its analysis, and thus determine whether it belongs to the forcible, mild or moderate class.

EXAMPLES OF WELL KNOWN HYMN TUNES.

(1.) ·· Austria" has major mode, predominance of strong tones, wide melodic skips, high pitch, dispersed harmony, contrary motion between the parts, transition to the dominant, 4-part measure, primary form. The forcible elements predominate.

(2.) Dennis has major mode, predominance of calm me, steps progressions, close low harmony, similar motion between the parts; 3-part measure, secondary form. The mild elements predominate.

(3.) → Federal Street" has major mode, free use of leaning tones, medium pitch, close harmony. Step progressions primary, transitions to dominant. Alla breve measure premary form. A substantial equilibrium, therefore it beongs to the moderate class.

(TO BE CONTINUED. }

BEETHOVEN.

(SONATA QUASIA UNA FANTASIA.)

ADAGIO SOSTENUTO.

Op, 27, No. 2.

I stand upon the shore of life's broad ocean drear,
And watch the ripples of the softly flowing tide:
The shimmer of the moon, as on some fair one's bier

The white and silv'ry shroud her form doth seek to hide;

And as I listen to the surge's moaning wail,

A voice, the saddest yet the sweetest ever heard,

Sings from the darkness of my sorrow and travail,

Of love departed and hope for e'er deferred.

ALLEGRETTO.

Yet spreads her wings

A white-clad ship:

Mayhap she brings

From her long trip

Some joy, some solace for my soul.

Roll smoothly, O broad ocean, roll!

How gently wafts
Against her sails
And tap'ring masts,

And never fails,

The breeze that brings from o'er the sea
My ship, so fraught with hope for me.

PRESTO AGITATO.

Alas, with clouds as dark as blackest night,
The sky, the moon, my ship are blotted out.
Naught can I see, save when the forked light
Glares forth from Heaven; even when I doubt
My eyes; for on the cruel, rock-bound shore
Beating her life out in the breakers there,

I see my ship, a wreck forevermore:

My hopes, my heart, my soul, drowned in despair.
HENRY DAVID

REVIEWS AND NOTICES.

FAMOUS COMPOSERS AND THEIR WORKS. Edited by John Knowles Paine, Theodore Thomas and Karl Klauser. Boston, J. B. Millet Company. Serial. Each part 50 ets. Thirty parts. Sold only by subscription.

Part 1. John Sebastian Bach.

Part 2. George Frederick Haendel, and Christopher Willibald Gluck.

Part 3. Gluck finished. Francis Joseph Haydn.

Part 4. Haydn completed. Mozart.

The four parts here sent out together are enough to afford a general idea of the monumental work projected and now well advanced by the J. B. Millet Company, of Boston. The ground proposed to be covered is that of a biographical history of music, in which the personalities of the composers, the peculiarities of their modes of life, together with copious extracts of their works, are brought before the reader, in order to enable the amateur to possess himself as far as possible of the kind of knowledge of music which a sound musical scholar and man of taste would arrive at as a result of many years of study. The work belongs to the modern class of collaborative authorship. A general conception is divided among experts, each of whom delivers himself concerning the particular province confided to his care. The compass of each article and its general relations are assigned. The expert then puts into the desired number of words all the information he possesses appropriate to its place in the general plan. The final out come of this form of authorship lacks the pervading personality which always characterizes the finished work of strong individualities, but it gains in place of it a comprehensiveness and reliability which no large work by a single author can acquire-since the provinces of knowledge have so immeasurably extended themselves.

The general plan of the present work was that of giving biographical sketches by the best writers, both European and for eign: the whole under a general supervision of Prof. Paine-a manysided musical scholar, probably as well fitted for a work of this kind as any that could be named. Then the publishers desired that absolutely everything in the way of portraits, representations of buildings, instruments, etc. available should be used to the fullest compass of modern illustration wherever it would make the book more intelligible or more attractive; this part was instrusted to Prof. Karl Klauser, a highly skilled photographer and a musician of wide knowledge and sympathy. The musical examples of the different writers's works were intended to be selected with a double reference to their illustrative value and their availability to the the average amateur. This part of the editing was intrusted to

Mr. Theodore Thomas--a name which at once assures a degree of conscientious supervision and a high order of musical intelligence. The range of the biographical writers may be inferred from the four numbers immediately in hand. Bach is treated by the great Bach biographer, Philipp Spitta. The essay extends to thirty quarto pages, or about 24,000 words. Handel is treated by the same writer in twenty pages. Gluck occupies twenty-three pages, from the pen of the late Wilhelm Langhans. Haydn is treated by Mr. B. E. Wolf, of Boston, to the extent of twenty-four pages. Twenty pages of the Mozart biography are given in No. 4, but the author's name is not yet announced.

There are fifteen pages of music by Bach, the selections being a prelude and fugue from the Well Tempered Clavier, one of the shorter organ fugues, a pianoforte arrangement (with words) of the final chorus of the St. Matthew Passion, and several of the smaller gavottes.

Among the Handel illustrations is the famous air from his opera of "Xerxes," "Thy shade gives rest"-better known in this country as the Handel "Largo," so often played by Mr. Thomas.

Mr. Karl Klauser is not behind his associates in the fullness and care of his work. Portraits, birthplaces, monuments, facsimiles and reproductions of famous historical paintings relating to the subject immediately in hand, meet us at every turn. The engravings are the best modern process work, half-tone, and line. In this respect the fullest of the histories of music falls far short of these numbers. Typographically the work is executed in the finest style of the subscription book art. It may be remarked, as an illustration of the care with which the work has been prepared, that one of the publishers spent a year in Europe collecting material from which the illustrations might be made.

"Famous Composers and their works" is therefore the most complete and attractive of all the musical gift books that have as yet been published, and it is not likely that anything handsomer will soon appear.

For the information of readers who would like to know more concerning it, reference may be made to the circular which the publishers will send upon application. No subscription is taken for anything less than the entire work, but it is stated that whenever possible a correspondent desiring to see the work will be waited upon by a canvasser with samples. The work is particularly attractive for amateur societies, reading circles, and schools since it covers the entire central ground of musical biography, and affords a birds-eye view of musical lierature.

A NOBLE ART: THREE LECTURES ON THE EVOLUTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE PIANO. By Fanny Morris Smith. Printed at the De Vinne Press, New York 1892. 8vo. 160. Parchment. This charmingly gotten-up little work contains a variety of interesting matter about the pianoforte and the history of its invent on. It is illustrated with a great variety of engravings, showing

(3.) If the sense permits, before syncopes and specially accented tones; between reiterated tones of the same pitch and value; after slurred tones, and after a short staccato. [Compare Seiler's "Voice in Singing," page 167.]

NOTE. Having in mind the necessity of full lungs, a rule of immense practical but of slight scientific value may be added, namely: Take breath as frequently as possible.

42. Breath Marks.

The place for the half breath may be marked by this sign v written just over the music. As the full breath must be taken at all longer pauses, no sign is requisite for it.

43. In emphatical disjunction of words, (see par. 14) the pause may be too brief to permit a half breath. The presence of the lesser reading mark indicates a hiatus; the absence of the inverted carat shows that breath must not be taken.

44. Modes of Tone Production.

(1.) Passages requiring smooth connection of the tones (legato), should be produced by a slow contraction of the abdominal muscles inward and upward, while the chest is permanently raised and expanded.*

(2.) Sustained tones, trills, etc., are similarly produced. (3.) Staccato tones are produced by a sudden contraction of some part of the vocal apparatus. Light shades may be produced at the glottis, but the more usual method is the result of the action of abdominal muscles. Thus produced, an outward stroke of the body at the diaphragm will be perceptible at each tone 4. Different timbres require different degrees of tension in the lung muscles, particularly those of the upper chest. As these qualities vary according to the form of the vocal chamber, no definite rules can be given.

NOTE.-Controlling the breath by the abdominal muscles lessens fatigue in singing by relieving the uraler and less muscles of the upper chest and throat from much effort, corrects throatiness," and promotes the formation of full, mellow, clearly resonant tones.

*Only when the breath is completely expended may the chest fall-the stat of rest is only appropriate for the end of a stanza or song.

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