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Adolph Carpe was for five years a private pupil of the famous Leipzig teacher, Carl Reinecke. He came to America in 1866 and became connected with the choirs of different Cincinnati churches as baritone. In 1867 he located in Dayton, Ohio, as organist of the Third Street Presbyterian church, teaching music also. He had studied music in connection with his classical course at the gymnasium at Pader

born, his native westphalian city, and in 1873 determined to make music his life's


work. He re

turned to Ger


many, this time to Leipzig, and placed himself under the in struction of Reinecke. With this great teacher he made rapid progress. During his last year of study study he played with Reinecke and Dr. Maas the

triple concertos of Mozart and Bach in the Gewandhaus, and in his farewell concert at the same place, he played the Mozart concerto for two pianos and orchestral accompaniment, with Reinecke. Aterwards he made a

successful concert tour through Germany, playing in all the larger cities.

In 1878 he returned to the United States and settled in Cincinnati, and in 1879 became one of the leading piano instructors at the Cincinnati College of Music under Theodore Thomas. His success as a piano teacher was immediate. When Theodore Thomas severed his connection with that institution Mr. Carpe also resigned and continued in his work as a private instructor, and his series of piano recitals every year were for four or five years regarded as among the prominent musical events of that city.

Mr. He is a strong

He removed to the wider field offered in Chicago a year ago, and since then he has jumped into the front rank of Chicago's able pianists and piano-forte teachers. He was one of the solo pianists in the series of orchestral concerts given by Mr. Thomas at the Auditorium last winter. Carpe is a performer of finished attainments. man intellectually, and his reperetory includes fully 150 compositions; a much larger number than the majority of pianists are able to carry in their memories. His versatility in the various styles of piano-forte execution is one of his chief characteristics, and not a whit less noteworthy is his splendid technique, his delicate touch, and the refined spirituality of his interpretations, and his exquisite He is a sterling addition to the musical artists of G. B. A.


this city.




Every great current of mental activity is like a river in this, that however large and grand it may be in that part of its course whereupon the ventures of nations are safely borne, there has been a time in its history when it was but a mere rill, across which a boy's foot might easily have stepped, and upon which the boy's little ship would scarcely have been wrecked. In order to find this condition of the great river we have only to go back far enough towards its source. Thus it is, also, with every great department of mental activity. But between the material river and the current of mind there is a great difference in this: The river is still before us, not alone in its grander development of navigable waters, but also its sources and all its intermediate stages are but a small distance away and within easy reach. Not so is it with the great currents of the world's thought. The sources of these are lost in the mists of tradition. All that we certainly know points clearly to a time when each of these streams also was but a rill, a suggestion, a happy inspiration of some gifted mind in a moment of its best effort. But when the river emerges from the mountains and debouches upon the plain of written history, it has already become a stream of no mean magnitude. The best that can be done in tracing the full course of one of these great streams of thought or mental product, is to reconstruct its past the best we can by way of research, tradition, and especially by observing carefully the peculiarities of its flow within the limits wherein it admits of being fully examined; from the elements so obtained we premise its history just as astronomers compute the orbit of a planet from the mathe

matical elements of the part of its revolution known to them. It is in this spirit that all remote history has to be written.



The art of music, which forms the subject of the present inquiry, occupies at the present time an important place in civilization. It accentuates the public relations of society, beautifies the inner intercourse of the family and the social circle, and is, in fact, the only form of art still retaining original vitality. All the others are occupied, more or less, in imitating master works long ago created, which there is no longer a hope of surpassing-hardly of equalling. Music on the other hand, is a new art, as to the date of its master works, and the later creations have been of such quality as to explain the hitherto unexplained implications of the older There is no other art which better illustrates the cess of human progress towards an ideal. Although there is perhaps no race of men so low as not to have a music of some kind, there are and always have been many races without music of such excellence as to commend it to the ears of cultivated man. The sense of hearing has become more acute and discriminating, and the principles of selecting musical combinations out of nature's infinite store, have undergone changes, and it is to be presumed have approached more nearly to a scientific adaptation of means to ends. In every age of the world there have been musical instruments upon which bards and minstrels have played and to which listeners have harkened in rapt admiration. Not a sound of the strains has come down to us. Only the tradition of it remains. The music that they had they employed for social purposes and for beautifying religious worship. Poets have sung of it, philosophers have speculated about it and contrived for it a place in the schemes of ideal education, which have occupied so much of their thought. In one country music has flourished; in another it has faded and withered. The art has relations of compatibility with other forms and movements of mind. These relations we may be able to trace, and these rhapsodies of the poets and philosophers admit of being set down in order. When this shall have been done there will be the the means of reconstructing the history of music and of retracing the

principal steps by which it has come to its present development, its present fullness and depth of power. We shall know what instruments they had; what kind of music they probably made; what uses they had for music, and the ideal that they sought to express by means of it, in all the principal epochs of culture. The barbaric attempts at music do not interest us, except in so far as they testify to the instinct for music which seems to be universal in the race. But every attempt at music in the history of a cultivated people has advanced the art in some degree towards a higher and a truer development. Every such attempt, therefore, will be of interest to us. The history as a whole, as in every other department, will tell the story of progress, of fitter adaptation of means to ends, and of an ideal more clearly defined and more precisely realized. However imperfect the early efforts may be found to have been, they will be found to represent or testify to the existence of an ideal seeking expression through means not yet fully comprehended. This ideal will also be a subject of inquiry.

The value of such a study lies not alone nor mainly in the information which more or less trustworthily may be the visible result of it, but in the implication it will carry that man is a creature of progress, and that conditions least satisfactory and poorest understood at present may be but the pushing onwards toward something more desirable in the future.

For the use of the term ideal in a discussion of this kind no apology is necessary. There is an ideal, and all art has been in pursuit of it. Whether the ideal is evolved from the mind itself, or whether it is the reaction between the thinker and the subject of thought outside him, is not a question that need concern us. Art without an ideal is inconceivable.

The learned historian, M. J. J. Fetis, regards music as the art of the Aryan races exclusively. For, although the black and the brown races have devised various apparatuses for the production of symbolic sounds, the sounds so produced are so poorly arranged as to their relative pitch and rhythm, that they neither touch the aesthetic faculties, properly so called, nor form a valid beginning out of which a

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