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period of the year, afford a variety of views which are

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fails to give the lovely softness of the somewhat worn steel plate, it shows fairly well the agreeable composition of inci.

dents seized by the eye of the great artist; the Turneresque sky, the ripples of the water, the somber background of a bold headland, the pleasure and fishing craft, the distant sails, the pleasing incidents of a picturesque bit of water and sky. It is of this scene that Ruskin writes, in "Modern Painters" (Vol. I, p. 363): The immense width of the river at this point makes it look like a lake or sea, and it was, therefore, necessary that we should be made thoroughly to understand and feel that this is not the calm of still water, but the tranquillity of a majestic current. Accordingly a boat swings at anchor on the right; and the stream, dividing at its bow, flows toward us in two long, dark waves, especial attention to which is enforced by the one on the left being brought across the reflected stream of sunshine, which it separates, and which is broken in the nearer water by the gentle undulation and agitation caused by the boat's wake, a wake caused by the waters passing it, not by its going through the water."

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The scene entitled Tours" is a view taken apparently along the levee which confines the river, at a point some distance from the city proper. In the foreground, a river street; in the middle distance a long bridge, and in the distance the tower of the cathedral, which here, as everywhere, soars aloft above all other edifices.

A short distance further brings the passenger to Saumur, where again the great square towers of the cathedral form a prominent landmark. In this engraving the Turneresque cloud effects are partly lost, but the general effect of the original in other respects is well preserved. It is greatly to be regretted that the literary mechanic selected to accompany Turner along the rivers of France had not been an artist in his own right. As it is, his text affords nothing but commonplace, dry-as-dust statistics, while the beauties upon which the eye of the artist lingered with such appreciation made no impression upon him. Turner was fitted to see; and this is what his pictures always give us, an ideality which no other painter has surpassed. AMATEUR.


To one who has passed his childhood in the South, no music in the world is so tenderly pathetic, so wildly, uncouthly melancholy, so fraught with an overpowering heimweh, as that of the negroes. When he hears one of these quaint old airs, he needs but to close his eyes and the potent spell of the music revivifies the past. Old memories, that he had deemed forgotten, rise as if obedient to the voice of enchantment. He is again a child in the cradle, and his faithful old "mammy," as she rocks him, bends over him in the firelight and croons:

Again he sees the dark river, lit up by the flare of burning pitch, and the dusky figures of the roustabouts, their white eyeballs gleaming, singing with stentorian voices while they load the boat with cotton, solo alternating with chorus:

O, far you well old mistis.

I ain' come home tel Chrismus.

I'm gwine fer ter bring some money.


Ya a-as.

Or it may be that he is sitting upon the broad piazza in the moonlight, and there is borne to him by the evening breeze a distant chorus, rising and falling in unearthly,

NOTE: The following words may be sung to this air:

"O, de mugwump roosts on de hollow log,

And de snagwap sits in de tree;

And when I hear dat migfunk sing,

My heart is sad in me."

plaintive cadences, like the moaning of the wind or the cry of a lost spirit.


Genuine negro music is invariably in a peculiar minor, which differs from the civilized scale in two particulars; the sixth note of the gamut is omitted and the seventh is half a tone lower. Try over the specimen given above, making the F sharp, as it would be in modern music, and notice how completely the peculiar, plaintive charm vanishes. There are some other differences which cannot be represented in musical notation. For instance, the A in the fourth bar of the passage above is neither A nor yet A flat, but between the two. This scale is said to be that of the primitive races -of the Esquimaux, the Egyptians, the South Sea islandTraces of it may be found in Meyerbeer, Chopin and Grieg, composers who have made free use of volkslieder. I have no doubt that this music, like Voodooism, is a remnant of former idolatry. Doubtless many of these hymns have been sung for centuries before the shrines of fetishes in the dark jungles of Africa.


As to rhythm, a certain syncopation, represented by an eight and dotted quarter is common.

When the blacks came into contact with the major scale of the whites, they adopted it, preserving still the syncopated rhythm and the omission of one note of the scale (the seventh in the major.) For example:

"Swing low, sweet chariot."

There is the same omission of the seventh in Scotch music.

Much of the so-called. negro music is as little like what it is intended to represent as the words are like negro dialect.

It is quite a common thing for the negro women tɔ im

provise words and music while they are at work, a sort of Wagnerian "melos," or endless melody, as it were. I have often heard them drone softly thus all through the livelong, bright summer day.

The music is an important factor in their religious (?) revivals. I shall never forget my experience at one of these meetings. The negroes had been wrought up almost to a pitch of frenzy by the fervid declamation of a "colored brother." They were all standing; the women kept up a continuous, subdued droning-their emotional state required some outlet: a huge stalwart darkey began a hymn in which all speedily joined; about fifty of them crowded about a young girl whom they wished to "bring through," singing at the top of their voices and swaying their bodies rhythmically to and fro. The object of their solicitude sat for a time in a sort of stupor. Everywhere she looked there were gaping throats and fierce eyes glaring at her like those of wild beasts. She was the center of attraction. Gradually she joined in the song and ended by falling into a convulsion of such violence that five of the men could with difficulty hold her. This "new birth" was received with many pious ejaculations of "Praise the Lord!"

"Previous condition of servitude" in certain reformatory institutions of the state, or porcine or other petty peculation does not in the least debar a brother from active participation in these exercises.

Various attempts have been made at collecting these our only volkslieder but they have not been very successful, for the reason that the tunes are usually arranged in four parts by the collector. Now, in the first place, these airs are always sung in unison, and in the second place the flatting of the seventh, as every musician will immediately perceive, renders it well-nigh impossible to harmonize them. As it is, the melody is usually sacrificed to the harmony. The melodies, pure and simple, with no attempt at improving them, should be collected and preserved; for, like Caucasian church music, they are rapidly disappearing before the triumphant march of "Gospel Hymns!"

When our American musical Messiah sees fit to be born

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