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The Ancient Race; from statues in the Gizeh Museum; from the Royal Mummies of the same. Doctrine of the future life as connected with embalmment. Egyptian tombs. Their paintings and relics.
The Pyramid Tombs. —Antiquity, location, number, dimensions, method of construction. The Great Pyramid. The Great Sphinx.
Egyptian Gods and animal counterparts. Sun worship and animal worship.-Horus as the Sphinx, as the solar disk, as the hawk; mummies of divine animals; the beetle or scarabæus. Forms of Osiris and Isis. Pictures of the Last Judgment.
The Temple Ruins. -Antiquity, locations, historic significance for the periods and social organism of Egyptian history, Type of the Egyptian temple as shown by complete details of the temple at Edfu. Uses of the temple as shown by the temple at Denderah. Details and style of construction as shown by the ruins at Abydos. The Lotus and lotiform capitals, symbolism of the water-lily. Ruins of Philæ, as showing the "temple complex." Colossal dimensions and massive construction as shown by the ruins of Thebes; including details from the sites now known as Luxor and Karnak, the Colossi of Amenophis III. and the Ramesseum, Temples of Ipsamboul and Colossi of Rameses II.
Origin of the Alphabet.—The Rosetta Stone and its key to the hieroglyphics.
* REFERENCES FOR SPECIAL READING AND PAPERS. Elementary Epitome of Egyptian Architecture and Art.-GOODYEAR, "History of Art." LÜBKE, "History of Art."
Political and Narrative History.-MYERS, "General History." Very brief, inexpensive and simple is MARIETTE, "Outlines of Egyptian History." A fine standard history is that of BRUGSCH.
* In undertaking Paper work the first thing to be considered is the choice of a book. Hence the arrangement of recommended books under italicized headings suggesting their general subject-matter. This choice having been made, the italicized topics under heading, "Matter of the Lecture," will offer a choice of subjects to the student corresponding to the character of the given book. When compendious books are used, the index and table of contents, and the historical arrangement, will guide the reader to the general subject of the lecture, and after the reading has been done for the given general subject, it is open to the student either to treat a special topic, as suggeste 1 by the lecture healings, or to write out a tabulated and skeleton summary of the ground covered by a week's re ding. When a book is selected which is not compendious, and whose entire bulk is devoted to the subject of one lecture, or to part of that subject, then the student is advised to throw the written exercise into the form of a critique, or account of personal impressions or new views derived from the given authors. Such an exercise may very properly take the shape of a letter addressed to the lecturer Four hundred words may be considered as a fair average length for the written exercise which may be, however, either longer or shorter, at the discretion of the student.
The Modern Country.-Encyclopædia Britannica, under "Egypt"; introductory chapters of Baedeker's and Murray's Guide-books; AMELIA B. EDWARDS, "A Thousand Miles Up the Nile."
Ancient Daily Life.-MASPERO, "Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria." Ancient Technical and Mechanical Arts. --WILKINSON, "Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians." There is an abridged edition under the title, "A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians."
The Pyramids.-PETRIE, "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh." The Temple Ruins.-MARIETTE, "Monuments of Upper Egypt." Hieroglyphics and Literature.-AMELIA B. EDWARDS, "Pharaohs, Fellahs and Explorers," Chaps. VI, VII; ISAAC TAYLOR, "The Alphabet," Vol. I, Chaps. I, II.
Greek Architecture and Art.
Argument of the Lecture.
The material basis of the Greek civilization was borrowed from the older Oriental nations and especially from Egypt, largely by way of Phoenician transmission; but a complete transformation of style and of form in the use of the materials tends to obscure this derivation. The materials and tools and mechanical methods were the same, but the statue, the temple, and the picture reveal a new ideal in history. The study of Greek art and architecture thus has a double lesson. It illustrates the contrast between Greek and Egyptian civilization, and shows the step forward taken in history. It also illustrates the dependence of all later European history on that of Greece, when the correspondences in modern style and forms are considered and their dependence on the Greek originals becomes apparent.
Treatment of the Lecture.
Athens, as the most important historic centre, both of modern and of ancient Greece, is first visited as a modern capital. We then turn to its ancient cemetery for illustrations of its relics and tombstones as memorials of the old Greek daily industrial life. These lead us to other sculpture relics bearing on the religious and educational ideals of the Greeks, including the most important results of excavations at Olympia. The Acropolis of Athens is then reviewed in detail both for its monuments of architecture (Parthenon, Erechtheium, temple of Wingless Victory) and for its sculpture relics in London (the Elgin marbles). The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates and the temple of Olympian Jupiter below the Acropolis are last visited.
Matter of the Lecture.
Traveler's approach to modern Athens by way of Patras, Corinth and Eleusis. Modern Greece-Streets and people of modern Athens. Retrospect of history, facing the Acropolis.
Ancient Greek industrial life.—The Cemetery of the Kerameikos and its tomb relics. Greek glassware and pottery, compared with Egyptian. Coins, gems and Tanagra figurines. Tombstone reliefs as revelations of industrial art and average taste and compared with the more formal style of Egyptian art.
Religious origin and mission of Greek sculpture.—Minerva (Athene) types of the Acropolis Museum.
Greek sculpture as reflex of athletic education.—Types of athletic statues (Vatican Museum). Athenian stadion, and ruins and excavations of Olympia as memorials of the gymnastic games. Mercury (Hermes) of Praxiteles. Pediment sculptures from the temple of Jupiter (Zeus).
The Greek Drama.- Ruins of theatres below the Athenian Acropolis. Greek Architecture. -The temple of Theseus below the Acropolis as type of the Greek temple. Ascent to the Acropolis through the Propylæa. Ruins of the Parthenon. Architectural sculptures now in the British Museum (Elgin marbles); the frieze, the metopes, the gable statues. The horizontal curves. The Parthenon as type of the Doric order of architecture. The Erechtheium as type of the Ionic order of architecture. Ionic temple of Wingless Victory (Nike Apteros) and balustrade relief of Victory adjusting her sandal.
The Corinthian Order.-Choragic monument of Lysicrates. Ruins of the temple of Olympian Jupiter.
Modern phases of Greek art, from New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Washington and Chicago.
* REFERENCES FOR SPECIAL READING AND PAPERS. Greek Art and Architecture.--For elementary epitome, GOODYEAR, "History of Art" or TARBELL, "History of Greek Art." For more advanced readers, REBER, "History of Ancient Art ;" LÜBKE, "History of Art."
Political and Narrative History. -- For epitome, MYERS, History." For beginners, GUERBER, "Story of the Greeks." For advanced readers, Histories of Greece, by CURTIUS and HOLM.
The Modern Country.--MAHAFFY, "Rambles in Greece." HOPPIN, "Greek Art on Greek Soil."
Ancient Daily Life.--MAHAFFY, “Social Life in Greece.” GUHL and KONER, Lives of the Greeks and Romans."
Greek Archwology.--COLLIGNON, “Manual of Greek Archæology"; inexpensive, popular, and very readable.
Philosophy of Greek Art.--TAINE, "Art in Greece;" brief and very readable. RUSKIN, "Aratra Pentelici," "Queen of the Air."
Prehistoric Greece --SCHUCHARDT, "Schliemann's Excavations in the Light of Recent Science."
* For advice as to the use of books in preparing written exercises and as to choice of topics, see p 5.