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LECTURE III.

Roman Architecture and Art.

Argument of the Lecture.

The Roman in conquering Italy shared the culture and art of the conquered peoples. These gradually acquired the language and political rights and name of Romans. Thus Romau Architecture and Art were Italian, but Italian Architecture and Art were derived from the Greeks in the matter of style, form, and ornamental quality. Like the Greeks, the Italians were dependent on the ancient Oriental world for their me chanical and technical arts. To a large extent Phoenician commerce first brought to Italy this Oriental civilization, but the Etruscans, who were long the dominant nation in Italy, before the rise of Rome, were in intimate commercial relations with the Greeks, and much of the Oriental influence flowed into Italy by way of Greek transmission and disguised under Greek forms. When the Empire of Rome came to comprehend all the nations of the Mediterranean world, it found in al! these other nations conditions similar to those of Italy. In the Roman territories of northern and western Europe the conditions were less advanced, but they were in principle the same as in Italy, as regards the succession of Greek in fluences to Oriental Phoenician, and also as regards the continued transmission of Oriental influences by way of the Greeks. On the other hand all the Roman territories of the eastern Mediterranean were dominated by Alexandrian (Macedonian) Greek ascendancies of government and culture before they became "Roman," and their culture was not modified by Roman conquest. On the contrary it became, after that conquest, more than ever active in moulding that of western and northern Europe.

Treatment of the Lecture.

Beginning with the modern Roman capital we are led in thought back to its ancient days by the inspection of its monumental ruins. The relics and sites of the city belonging to the time of the Roman monarchy, 753– 510 B. C., lead to a brief account of the general conditions of Italian culture during this period, based on illustrations of Etruscan art from various localities, and of the Greek ruins at Pæstum. Roman history in the narrower sense, which applies to the city and its immediate territory, is next reviewed by aid of the relics and sites within the city of Rome, which belong to the time of the Republic. The period of the Empire is

first illustrated by relics of domestic life from Pompeii, next by typical ruins from the Roman provinces, finally by the most important ruins of the capital city.

Matter of the Lecture.

Types of the people.
Panorama from the
Panorama from St.

A Tourist's first Impressions of Modern Rome.--Maps and plan. The railway station. Baths of Diocletian. Street of the Four Fountains. Piazza di Spagna. Steps of the Trinità de' Monti. Pincian park. Panorama from the Pincian Hill. Tiber. Panorama from the Castle of St. Angelo. Peter's. Panorama from Piazza del Popolo. Piazza del Popolo. The Corso. The Capitol Hill. Panorama from the Capitol looking North Panorama from the Capitol looking South over the Forum.

Sites and Relics of the Roman Monarchy.--The Palatine Hill. Walls of Romulus. The Forum. Mamertine Prison. Walls of Servius Tullius. Great Sewer (Cloaca Maxima). The Roman Wolf.

Civilization of Italy during the period of the Roman Monarchy and Republic. --Etruscan Museum of Florence. Etruscan statuettes and reliefs. Etruscan vases. Greek temple ruins of Paestum.

Relics of Roman history under the Republic. -The Tabularium. Tombs of the Scipios and Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus. The Appian Way. Marcian aqueduct. Fabrician bridge. Temple of Fortuna Virilis.

Relics of Roman domestic life under the Empire.--Bay of Naples and site of Pompeii. Model of Pompeii in the Naples Museum. Streets. Houses. Wall paintings. Mosaics. Furniture and Utensils. Statuary.

Architecture and public works under the Empire. The Roman Provinces. -Maison Carrée, amphitheatre and aqueduct of Nimes (Gaul). The wall of Hadrian (Britain). Barracks at Trier (Germany). Aqueduct of Ephesus (Asia Minor). Ruins of Balbek (Syria). Ruins of Tebessa (North Africa). Aqueduct at Segovia (Spain).

Architecture and public works under the Empire. The Roman Capital.-Ruins of the Forum. Arch of Titus. The Colosseum. The Baths of Caracalla. The Pantheon.

REFERENCES FOR SPECIAL READING AND PAPERS.

For

Roman Art and Architecture.-For elementary epitome, GOODYEAR, "History of Art," and GOODYEAR, "Roman and Medieval Art." advanced readers, REBER, "History of Ancient Art ;" LÜBKE, "History of Art."

"General

Narrative and Political History.-For epitome, MYERS, History," and ALLEN, "Short History of the Roman People." beginners, GUERBER, "Story of the Romans."

For

Modern Rome and its Monumental Relics.-DENNIE, "Rome of To-Day and Yesterday."

Ancient Daily Life.-MARC MONNIER, "Wonders of Pompeii." GUHL and KONER, "Lives of the Greeks and Romans."

Popular Archæology and Accounts of Recent Excavations.-LANCIANI, "Ancient Rome."

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Emperor Claudius and his wife, Agrippina the Younger. His uncle Tiberius

and his mother Livia.

LECTURE IV.

Mediæval Architecture and Art.-Byzantine Period.

Argument of the Lecture.

The Christian religion and the Roman Church were the connecting link between ancient and modern history during that period of the German migrations and invasions which began the Middle Age. Through and with Christianity Roman civilization made its first distinct impression on the Germanic nations. In eastern Europe and in the Asiatic and African territories bordering on the Mediterranean which continued under Roman rule after these invasions in the West, the Roman civilization which then survived is commonly known by the adjective Byzantine-an adjective derived from the new Roman capital of Constantinople (or Byzantium). The influence of this East-Roman or Byzantine civilization on Western Europe is especially traceable in the surviving relics of early Christian art and in the architectural details of the early Christian Churches. For a double reason the history of church architecture has value as an approach to the study of the early Middle Ages. First, the churches are the most important visible and surviving relics of the greatest civilizing power of that age. Second, the study of church decoration and ornamental details leads us to emphasize the importance and influence of Byzantine civilization in Western Europe.

Treatment of the Lecture.

The early Christian Churches were, as regards plan and construction, of two types, both of which were derived from older Pagan buildings. These were the Baptisterium, or Bath, and the Basilica or Merchants' Exchange. The Pagan originals and early Christian copies may both be logically studied in examples from the city of Rome. Thus, also, we preserve most easily the chain of historic connection with the preceding lecture. For the period of the German invasions (as distinct from the Roman Christian period, preceding the downfall of the Western Empire) we turn next to the monuments of the Italian town of Ravenna, which are the most remarkable in Western Europe for the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth centuries as regards number, preservation and artistic quality. In fact, aside from the monuments of Rome, these buildings are unique survivals, even when the whole of Europe is considered. In Constantinople the Byzantine Church of Sta. Sophia (now a Turkish Mosque) is a noble monument of the sixth century, and the Arab Mosques of Jerusalem

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