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demanded, undertaking everything that he advised, followed him through an unbroken course of effort and victory with an enterprise and a resolution worthy of his own. . . . 'You would not know your country again,' Walpole wrote to Sir Horace Mann. You left it a private little island, living upon its means. You would find it the capital of the world.' . . . While the renown of the great Englishman was spread over three continents by a series of triumphs, vast, rapid and durable beyond any which are related in the pages of Curtius or Livy, at home his empire was unbounded, and even undisputed. During four whole sessions his opponents never ventured to test the opinion of Parliament by calling for a vote. Charges of inconsistency, of recklessness, of profusion, were disdainfully cast aside, and ere long ceased to be uttered. When he thought fit to break silence, every phrase had the weight of a despot's edict."-TREVELYAN, EARLY HISTORY OF C. J. Fox.
D. ENGLAND AND THE SEA-POWER DURIng the Seven YEARS' War. "(She conquered) by the superiority of her Government using the tremendous weapon of her sea-power. This made her rich, and in turn protected the trade by which she had her wealth. With her money she upheld her few auxiliaries mainly Prussia and Hanover, in their desperate strife. Her power was everywhere that her ships could reach, and there was none to dispute the sea with her. Where she would she went, and with her went her guns and her troops. By this mobility her forces were multiplied, those of her enemies distracted. Ruler of the sea, she everywhere obstructed its highways.”—Captain Mahan, INFLUENCE OF THE SEA-POWER UPON HISTORY.
E. PROBLEMS OF EMPIRE.
"I show you mighty events in the future, events of which, as future, we know as yet nothing but that they must come, and that they must be mighty. These events are some further development in the relation of England to her colonies and also in relation to India. . . . Will there be a great disruption? Will Canada and Australia become independent States? Shall we abandon India, and will some native government, at present almost inconceivable, take the place of the Viceroy and his Council? Or will the opposite of all this happen? Will Great Britain rise to a higher form of organization? Will the English race, which is divided by so many oceans, making a full use of modern scientific inventions, devise some organization like that of the United States, under which full liberty and solid union may be reconciled with unbounded territorial extension?"-Sir John SeeleyY.
F. Two WARNINGS ON EMPIRE.
(a) "Since first the dominion of man was asserted over the ocean, three thrones of mark above all others have been set upon its sands: the thrones of Tyre, Venice and England. Of the first of these great powers only the memory remains; of the second, the ruin; the third, which inherits their great
ness, may, if it forget their example, be led through prouder eminence to less pitied destruction."-JOHN RUSKIN.
God of our fathers, known of old-
The tumult and the shouting dies--
Far-called, our navies melt away—
On dune and headland sinks the fire.
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
If, drunk with sight of power, we loose
Such boasting as the Gentiles use,
Or lesser breeds without the Law-
For heathen heart that puts her trust
KING GEORGE III, 1760-1783.
Monarchy and Oligarchy. The Last Struggle for Personal Rule.
"George, be a King."-THE PRINCESS DOWAger,
"Prerogative has become a fashionable word."-Horace Walpole.
"The king of England is not only the chief, but properly the sole magistrate of the nation, all others acting by commission from and in due subordination to him."-BLACKSTone's Commentaries, 1765.
"Why all this childish jealousy of the power of the Crown? The Crown has not power enough."-SAMUEL JOHNSON.
"Absolute Monarchy-the true Euthanasia of the British Constitution." -DAVID HUME.
"... half a patriot, half a coward grown,
I fly from petty tyrants to the throne."
"No monarch, not Henri Quatre, not Maria Theresa, not even our own Elizabeth, was ever more deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.”— LORD MAHON.
"Stranger irony of Fate can hardly be imagined than that which placed this stupidest of rulers at the head of a great people during one of its most trying crises; as if to show how much mischief can be worked by wrong. headed honesty, and how little the stupidity or the mischief wrought by a ruler can affect loyalty. . . . His popularity was due in part to the fact that he represented fairly enough those qualities of dogged courage and honesty, shading by imperceptible degrees into sheer pig-headedness and insensibility to new ideas, upon which we are accustomed, rightly or wrongly, to pride ourselves."-LESLIE STEPHEN.
"He inflicted more profound and enduring injuries upon his country than any other modern English king. Ignorant, narrow-minded and arbitrary, with an unbounded confidence in his own judgment, and an extravagant estimate of his prerogative, resolved at all hazards to compel his ministers to adopt his own views, or to undermine them if they refused, he spent a long life in obstinately resisting measures which are now almost universally admitted to have been good, and in supporting measures which are as universally admitted to have been bad."-W. E. LECKY.
"Punctual, patient, self-willed, and self-possessed; intruding into every department; inquiring greedily into every detail; making everybody's duty his own, and then doing it conscientiously, indefatigably, and as badly
as it could possibly be done; he had almost all the qualities which enable a man to use, or misuse, an exalted station with hardly any of the talents by means of which such a station can be reached from below."-TrevelYAN'S LIFE OF FOX.
"By a certain persistent astuteness; by the dextrous utilizing of political rivalries; by cajoling some men and betraying others; by a resolute adroitness that turned disaster and even disease into instruments of his aim, the king realized his darling object, of converting the dogeship to which he had succeeded into a real and to some extent a personal monarchy."-LORD Rosebery's LIFE OF PITT.
SCOPE OF LECTURE.
The " Expansion of England" is not the whole of eighteenth-century history. Tendency of Sir John Seeley and his disciples to undervalue the Parliamentary struggles of the period, and to cast scorn upon “the dull brawls of the Wilkes period," upon which Edmund Burke bestowed a good deal of attention. "It is not the mere multiplication of a race, nor its diffusion over the habitable globe, that sets its deepest mark on the history of a state, but rather those changes in idea, disposition, faculty, and, above all, in institution, which settle what manner of race it shall be that does in this way replenish the earth." The Industrial Revolution and the Religious Revolution of the eighteenth century are scarcely less important than England's territorial expansion. The Constitutional struggle of George III's reign, less critical than that of Charles I's time, is, nevertheless, full of interest, especially as regards the king's determined and partially successful attempt to restore Personal Government by the monarchy.
Modern changes in historical opinion. Altered ideas of the Conqueror, of Henry II, of Henry VIII, of Strafford and Cromwell, of Queen Elizabeth. The fate of George III. His enormous popularity once rivaled that of Elizabeth. Causes of English respect for him. A representative Englishman of the period, strongly imbued with the ideas, prejudices, virtues, and faults of the English middle-class. Almost universally condemned by modern historians. “Only a dull man with a rather bad heart." "A smaller mind than any English king before him save James II." "An arbitrary and bigoted king whose best excuse is that he had not made himself a ruler instead of being what nature intended him to be, a ploughman." How far are these severe verdicts justified?
George III's early life and surroundings. Character of his father, Frederic, Prince of Wales. Sir Robert Walpole's opinion of him: "A poor, feeble, irresolute, false, dishonest, contemptible wretch." His death in 1751. The Princess Dowager and her training. Made her son a respectability. The domestic virtues of George III. Not allowed to mix in society lest his morals should suffer! The Prince's dutifulness, as for example, in the matter of his affection for Lady Sarah Lennox. His defective education. To the last he
remained a narrow, uncultured British Philistine. "Was there ever such stuff as great part of Shakespeare?" The deadly dullness of his court. Miss Burney's appalling account of it. Importance of understanding the political principles in which he was educated. Anti-Whig training of a king who owed his throne to the Whig Revolution. Influence of Lord Bolingbroke. The "Patriot King" and its main doctrines. Importance of Bolingbroke's work in transforming the creed and policy of the Tory party. Shallowness and insincerity of the book. Its idea of kingship, however, governing as well as reigning, was that which the young king adopted and tried to carry out.
The duel of George III with the Whig oligarchy. Advantages on the side of the King: (a) “Gloried in the name of Briton;" (6) Jacobitism dead; (c) Adhesion of the new Tory party; (d) Disunion of the Whigs. Degeneracy of party. Chatham's dislike of it aids George III. The services of the Whig nobility to England had been very great, but it had done its work and cumbered the ground. The Whig methods of government. The "Spoils system" in Parliament." Every one for himself and the Exchequer for us all." Increase of corruption. Scandals of Irish and American jobbery. Junius' attack. The King turns the methods of the Whigs against themselves and becomes the arch-corrupter of Parliament. Plausibility of his scheme for the destruction of party government. His overthrow of successive Whig ministries by detestable methods. The "King's friends." Did Burke exaggerate? The King's treachery to his ministers. "At home in all the darkest corners of the political workshop." How far was he successful? The end of Whig monopoly. Personal government of the sovereign prevailed under Lord North, a mere Grand Vizier; and all through the reign the wishes and prejudices of the King were a chief factor in English politics. The achievements of ten years. Meaning of 1783. George III's triumph only partial. "In ridding himself of the tyranny of the Whigs, with the assistance of Pitt, he only exchanged one bondage for another."
The King's general influence upon the course of English history. Puritan morals at court. "In the private and domestic virtues few men and certainly no monarch ever excelled him" (Lord Mahon). Benjamin Franklin's eulogy. The King's sincere patriotism. Few sovereigns, however, have effected so much mischief. "The tyranny of ignorant conscientiousness." Examples: (1) The Wilkes controversy. Great constitutional questions involved. The transformation of John Wilkes into a popular hero. (2) The King's opposition to all schemes of Parliamentary Reform. (3) His attitude toward the Test and Corporation Acts, and the infamous Slave Trade. (4) His responsibility for the American quarrel. Not just to make him the scapegoat for this. The war was popular at first and the nation must share the blame. But the King resisted conciliation and embittered the contest. "Every means of distressing America must meet with my concurrence." The " King's War." (5) George III and Ireland. Why did the Act of Union fail?