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TITLE 1. property; and every other action to recover, or to procure a judgment,

establishing, determining, defining, forfeiting, annulling, or otherwise affecting, an estate, right, title, lien, or other interest, in real property, or a chattel real. But where all the real property, to which the action relates, is situated without the State, the action must be tried, as prescribed in section nine hundred and eighty-four of this act.

Other ac

§ 983. An action, for either of the following causes, must be tried where the in the county, where the cause of action, or some part thereof, arose:

cause thereof


1. To recover a penalty or forfeiture, imposed by statute; except that, where the offence, for which it is imposed, was committed on a lake, river, or other stream of water, situated in two or more counties, the action may be tried in any county, bordering on the lake, river, or stream, and opposite to the place where the offence was committed.

2. Against a public officer, or a person specially appointed to execute his duties, for an act done, in virtue of his office, or for an omission to perform a duty, incident to his office; or against a person, who, by the command or in the aid of a public officer, has done anything touching his duties.

§ 984. An action, not specified in the last two sections, must be tried cording to in the county, in which one of the parties resided, at the commence

Other actions, ac.

dence of

ment thereof. If neither of the parties then resided in the State, it the parties. may be tried in any county, which the plaintiff designates, for that

3. To recover a chattel distrained, or damages for distraining a chattel.

Place of trial, if

purpose, in the title of the complaint.


$985. If the county, designated in the complaint, as the place of trial, is not the proper county, the action may notwithstanding be tried County not therein; unless the place of trial is changed to the proper county, upon



the demand of the defendant, followed by the consent of the plaintiff, or the order of the court.

Defendant may demand


§ 986. Where the defendant demands that the action be tried in the proper county, his attorney must serve upon the plaintiff's attorney, with the answer, or before service of the answer, a written demand Ings there accordingly. The demand must specify the county, where the defend


ant requires the action to be tried. If the plaintiff's attorney does not serve his written consent to the change, as proposed by the defendant. within five days after service of the demand, the defendant's attorney may, within ten days thereafter, serve notice of a motion to change the place of trial.

When court may

§ 987. The court may, by order, change the place of trial, in either change the of the following cases:

place of trial.

1. Where the county, designated for that purpose in the complaint, is not the proper county.

2. Where there is reason to believe, that an impartial trial cannot be had in the proper county.

3. Where the convenience of witnesses, and the ends of justice, will be promoted by the change.

Effect of

§ 988. Where the place of trial is changed to another county, the the place subsequent proceedings shall be had in the county to which the change

of trial.

is made, the same as if it had been designated in the complaint, as the place of trial; except as otherwise directed by the court, or provided by the written consent of the parties, filed with the clerk. And the clerk of the county, from which it is changed, must forthwith deliver to the clerk of the county, to which it is changed, all papers filed in the action, and certified copies of all minutes and entries relating

thereto, which must be filed, entered, or recorded, as the case requires, in the office of the last named clerk.

§ 989. An order to change the place of trial takes effect, upon the Effect of entry thereof, in the office of the clerk of the county, from which the on changing place of trial is changed. But for the purposes of the place of hearing, place of a motion to set it aside, or an appeal therefrom, the place of trial is trial. deemed unchanged.

§ 990. An issue of law may be tried in any county, within the Issues of judicial district embracing the county wherein the action is triable; triable. law, where but after the trial, the decision and all other papers relating to the trial must be filed, and the judgment rendered must be entered, in the last named county.

§ 991. This article is applicable to an action in the supreme court only. This arti

cle applicable only to the supreme court.



SECTION 992. What rulings may be excepted to.

ART. 3.

993. Refusal of court or referee, to find upon facts may be excepted to.
994. When and how exceptions may be taken, after close of trial by court
or referee.

995. Id.; during the trial, or upon the trial by jury.

996. Ruling excepted to; how reviewed.

997. Case, when necessary; how made and settled.

998. When appeal, etc., may be heard without a case.

999. Motion for new trial upon judge's minutes; appeal from order there


1000. When and how exceptions, taken upon a jury trial, heard at general


1001. Motion for new trial at general term, when trial was by court or

1002. When motion for new trial to be made at special term. Restrictions

1003. Application of this article to trials of specific questions by jury; spe-
cial provisions applicable thereto.

1004. Motion for new hearing, after trial of specific questions by a referee.
1005. Final judgment, etc., not stayed, by motion for a new trial. Motion
may be heard afterwards.

1006. When exception not to prejudice motion for new trial.
1007. Notes of stenographer may be treated as minutes of the judge.

may be ex

§ 992. An exception may be taken to the ruling of the court or of a what referee, upon a question of law, arising upon the trial of an issue of rulinge fact. Except as prescribed in section one thousand one hundred and cepted to. eighty of this act, an exception cannot be taken to a ruling, upon a question of fact. For the purposes of this article, a trial by a jury is regarded as continuing, until the verdict is rendered.

TITLE 1. Refusal of court or

§ 993. Upon the trial of an issue of fact by a referee, or by the court, without a jury, a refusal to make any finding whatever, upon a quesreferee, to tion of fact, where a request to find thereupon is seasonably made by facts may either party, or a finding without any evidence tending to sustain it, be except is a ruling upon a question of law, within the meaning of the last




how ex

ceptions may be

When and § 994. Where an issue of fact is tried by a referee, or by the court, without a jury, an exception to a ruling, upon a question of law, made after the cause is finally submitted must be taken, by filing a notice ter close of of the exception in the clerk's office, and serving a copy thereof upon

taken, af

trial by court or referee.

the attorney for the adverse party. The exception may be so taken, at any time before the expiration of ten days after service, upon the attorney for the exceptant, of a copy of the decision of the court, or report of the referee, and a written notice of the entry of judgment thereupon. If the notice of exception is filed before the entry of final judgment, it must be inserted in the judgment-roll; if afterwards, it must be annexed to the judgment-roll. In either case, it constitutes a part of the papers, upon which an appeal from the judgment must be heard.

Id.; during the or

§ 995. In any other case, an exception must be taken, at the time upon trial when the ruling is made, unless it is taken to the charge given to the

by jury.

jury; in which case, it must be taken before the jury have rendered their verdict. It must, at the time when it is taken, be reduced to writing by the exceptant, or entered in the minutes.

§ 996. A ruling, to which an exception is taken, as prescribed in the last four sections, can be reviewed only upon an appeal from the judgment, rendered after the trial; except in a case, where it is expressly prescribed by law, that a motion for a new trial may be made thereupon. § 997. Where a party intends to appeal from a judgment, rendered after the trial of an issue of fact, or to move for a new trial of such an issue, he must, except as otherwise prescribed by law, make a case, and procure the same to be settled and signed, by the judge or the referee, by or before whom the action was tried, as prescribed in the general rules of practice; or, in case of the death or disability of the judge or referee, in such manner as the court directs. The case must contain so much of the evidence, and other proceedings upon the trial, as is material to the questions to be raised thereby, and also the exceptions taken by the party making the case. If it afterwards becomes necessary to separate the exceptions, the separation may be made, and the exceptions may be stated, with so much of the evidence and other proceedings, as is material to the questions raised by them, in a case, prepared and settled, as directed in the general rules of practice; or, in the absence of directions therein, by the court, upon motion. It is not necessary to state, in a case, that a finding upon the facts, or a ruling upon the law, was made, where the finding or ruling appears in a referee's report, or in the decision of the court, upon a trial by the court, without a jury.

Ruling excepted to; how reviewed.

Case, when

and set-

When ap

§ 998. It is not necessary to make a case, for the purpose of moving peal, etc., for a new trial, upon the minutes of the judge, who presided at a trial beard with by a jury; or upon an allegation of irregularity, or surprise; or where out a case. a party intends to appeal from a judgment entered upon a referee's

may be

Motion for new trial upon

report, or a decision of the court upon a trial, without a jury, and to rely only upon exceptions, taken as prescribed in section nine hundred and ninety-four of this act.

§ 999. The judge, presiding at a trial by a jury, may, in his discretion, entertain a motion, made upon his minutes, at the same term, to

ART. 3.

set aside the verdict and grant a new trial, upon exceptions; or because judge's the verdict is for excessive or insufficient damages; or otherwise con- minutes trary to the evidence, or contrary to law. If an appeal is taken from appeal the order, made upon the motion, it must be heard, upon a case, pre- thereupon. pared and settled in the usual manner.


tions, taken

ry trial,

§ 1000. Upon the application of a party who has taken one or more When and exceptions, the judge, presiding at a trial by a jury, may, in his dis- how excep cretion, at any time during the same term, direct an order to be entered, upon a juthat the exceptions so taken be heard, in the first instance, at the geu- heard at eral term; and that judgment upon the verdict be suspended, in the general mean time. At any time before the hearing of the exceptions, the order may be revoked or modified, upon notice, in court or out of court, by the judge who made it; or it may be set aside for irregularity, by the court, at any term thereof. Unless it is so revoked or set aside, the exceptions must be heard upon a motion for a new trial, which must be decided by the general term. The motion is deemed to have been made, when the order was granted; and either party may notice it for hearing at the general term, upon the exceptions.

new trial

trial was by

§ 1001. Where the decision or report, rendered upon the trial of an Motion for issue of fact by the court, without a jury, or by a referee, directs an at general interlocutory judgment to be entered; and further proceedings must term, when be taken, before the court, or a judge thereof, or a referee, before a court or final judgment can be entered; a motion for a new trial, upon one or referee. more exceptions, may be made at the general term, after the entry of the interlocutory judgment, and before the commencement of the hearing directed therein. The time within which the party must except, for that purpose, to a ruling of law, made, upon such a trial, by the judge or the referee, after the close of the testimony, is ten days after service of a copy of the decision or report, and notice of the entry of the interlocutory judgment thereupon.

new trial to

§ 1002. In a case, not specified in the last three sections, a motion for when moa new trial must, in the first instance, be heard and decided at the tion for special term. But where it is founded upon an allegation of error, in be made at special a finding of fact, or ruling upon the law, made by the judge upon the term. Retrial, it cannot be heard at a special term, held by another judge; unless strictions the judge, who presided at the trial, is dead, or his term of office has expired, or he specially directs the motion to be heard before another judge. And a trial by a referee cannot be reviewed, by a motion for a new trial, founded upon such an allegation, except in a case specified in the last section.


tion of this



§ 1003. The provisions of this article, relating to the proceedings to Applica review a trial by a jury, are applicable to the trial, by a jury, of one or the to more specific questions of fact, arising upon the issues, in an action trials of triable by the court. But, except in a case specified in section nine questions hundred seventy of this act, a new trial may be granted, as to by jury; some of the questions so tried, and refused as to the others; and an provisions error, in the admission or exclusion of evidence, or in any other ruling applicable or direction of the judge, upon the trial, may, in the discretion of the court which reviews it, be disregarded; if that court is of opinion, that substantial justice does not require that a new trial should be granted. Where the judge, who presided at the trial, neither entertains a motion for a new trial, nor directs exceptions, taken at the trial, to be heard at the general term, a motion for a new trial can be made only at the term, where the motion for final judgment is made, or the remaining issues of fact are tried, as the case requires.

TITLE 2. Motion for

§ 1004. In an action triable by the court, where a reference has been new hear made, to report upon one or more specific questions of fact, involved in the issue, a motion for a new hearing may be made at a special term, at any time before the hearing of a motion for final judgment, or the refer trial of the remaining issues of fact. The motion must be made upon

ing, after trial of specific ques

affidavits, unless the court, or a judge thereof, directs a case to be prepared and settled.

Final judg

a new

§ 1005. The entry of final judgment, and the subsequent proceedings not stayed to collect or otherwise enforce it, are not stayed by an exception, the by motion preparation or settlement of a case, or a motion for a new trial, unless trial. Mo. an order for such a stay is procured and served; and the entry, collection, or other enforcement of a judgment does not prejudice a subsequent afterwards. motion for a new trial. Where a new trial is granted, the court may direct and enforce restitution, as where a judgment is reversed upon appeal.

tion may be heard

When exception not to preju. dice motion for

§ 1006. The taking of an exception, upon a trial by a jury, or the statement thereof in a case, as prescribed in this article, does not prejudice a motion for a new trial, on the ground that the verdict was new rial. contrary to evidence; but such a motion may be made, before or after

the hearing of the exception; or, in the discretion of the court before which the exception is heard, at the time of the hearing.

Notes of

§ 1007. The notes of an official stenographer or assistant-stenog rapher, taken at a trial, when written out at length, may be treated, in be treated the discretion of the judge, as the minutes of the judge upon the trial,

pher may


of the

for the purposes of this article.



Trials without a jury.

SECTION 1008. If trial by jury waived, action must be tried by the court.
1009. Trial by jury; how waived.

1010. Decision upon trial by the court, when to be filed; consequence of failure.

1011. Reference by consent; when and how made.

1012. Qualification of the last section.

1013. Compulsory reference for the trial of issues; in what cases it may be


1014. Proceedings where the reference is for trial of part of the issues.
1015. Compulsory reference upon questions incidentally arising.
1016. Referee to be sworn.

1017. Witnesses may be subpoenaed.

1018. General powers of a referee, upon a trial.

1019. Referee's report; when to be made, consequence of failure.
1020. Double or other increased damages.

1021. Decision of court or report of referee, upon trial of demurrer.

1022. Id.; upon trial of the whole issue of fact.

1023. Parties may require court or referee to determine particular


1024. Qualifications of a referee.

1025. Several referees may be appointed.

1026. Proceedings regulated where there are several referees.

If trial by § 1008. In an action triable by a jury, if the parties waive the trial, waived, ac. by a jury, of the issue of fact, the action must be tried by the court,


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