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remained loyal to the Union, was separated from Virginia, and admitted into the Union as a separate State, under the name of West Virginia.


Mould, Broken. The idea that Nature broke the perfect mould after turning out a single splendid example is a favorite one in literature. English we are most familiar with Byron's version :

Sighing that Nature formed but one such man,
And broke the die in moulding Sheridan.

Monody on the Death of Sheridan, 1. 22.

Ariosto, in “Orlando Furioso,” Canto x., Stanza 84, says, “Nature made him, and then broke the mould" ("Natura il fece, e poi ruppe la stampa"). But the earliest instance yet found occurs in an ancient Indian poem, "Legend of Rajapootana," the lines being thus translated by a correspondent of Notes and Queries, fifth series, i. 105:

None other in the world has been formed in the mould in which Máru was cast :
Either the mould was broken, or the workman has been unable to make another.

Mountain, The, an epithet first derisively bestowed by the Girondists upon the Jacobins or extreme republicans in the French National Convention, from the fact that they occupied the rearmost and highest benches in the Assembly Chamber. The Mountain retorted by calling their opponents the Plain a translation which would convey the meaning more accurately would be" the Flats."

Mountain in labor bringing forth a mouse, a phrase often used simply in the form of “a mountain in labor,” the rest being understood, to represent a tremendous effort made with absurdly small result. Its immediate origin is the line of Horace, "Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus" ("The mountains are in labor : a ridiculous mouse will be born"), but that in its turn is a reference to Æsop's fable of the mountain which emitted subterranean sounds that led to the belief that it was in labor. An immense crowd collected, but nothing emerged save a mouse.

Mountain Meadow Massacre, a butchery of a party of immigrants, known as the "Arkansas Company," in September, 1857, by Indians under the leadership of certain Mormon "bishops" and leading "saints," and, as suspected, under the inspiration and with the connivance of Brigham Young, the head of the church himself, if not indeed by his direct orders. The ostensible motive for the crime was retaliation for acts of violence alleged to have been committed by other immigrant parties upon Mormon settlers. A Mormon named Laney, who had befriended the "Arkansas Company," to the extent of giving food to two of them, was murdered by a Mormon "angel of death." The immigrant party, finding themselves surrounded and attacked by the Indians and their Mormon instigators, hastily made a barricade of their wagons and threw up breastworks, from behind which they defended themselves. After several of their number had been killed and many wounded, and after a parley with the Mormons in the attacking party, the immigrants, under promise of cessation of further molestation, were induced to break up their camp and move to another point by a road which was indicated to them. On this road Mormon treachery had planned and prepared an ambuscade, and, the open and defenceless column being taken by surprise, the whole party was massacred, men, women, and children. The party of Federal soldiery who found the bones decently buried them, one of their number rudely carving upon one of the stones heaped over the spot an inscription in the words, "Vengeance is mine! I will repay, saith the Lord." Mourning Colors. Besides black, the following are used as a sign of

grief for the dead. Black and white striped, to express sorrow and hope, among the South Sea Islanders. Grayish brown, the color of the earth to which the dead return, in Ethiopia. Pale brown, the color of withered leaves, is the mourning of Persia. Sky-blue, to express the assured hope that the deceased has gone to heaven, is the mourning of Syria, Cappadocia, and Armenia. Deep blue in Bokhara. Purple and violet, to express "Kings and Queens to God," is the color of mourning for cardinals and kings of France. The color of mourning in Turkey is violet. White (emblem of hope), the color of mourning in China. Henry VIII. wore white for Anne Boleyn. The ladies of ancient Rome and Sparta wore white. It was the color of mourning in Spain till 1498. Yellow (the sere, the yellow leaf), the color of mourning in Egypt and in Burmah. Anne Boleyn wore yellow mourning for Catherine of Aragon.

Moutardier du Pape. A Frenchman frequently says of a conceited person, "Il se croit le moutardier du pape" (" He thinks himself the pope's mustard-maker"). The phrase is said to have arisen in the fourteenth century at the court of Pope John XXII. at Avignon. A sybarite both in his tastes and his appetites, he made the famous Palais des Papes in the Comtat Venaissin the seat of unparalleled splendor, invoking the aid of experts of all sorts, among others the most renowned cooks. Their use of mustard was especially grateful to his Holiness. This consisted in sprinkling dishes of meat with powdered mustard, and mixing mustard with the sauces. To insure perfection the pope created a special office, that of moutardier, at his court, conferring it on a favorite nephew. The latter's vanity was so absurdly tickled by his not over-dignified title and position that he became the object of constant pleasantries. The phrase Moutardier du Pape was handed down to posterity, and, oddly enough, it is recorded that Clement XIV. applied it to himself when Cardinal de Berenice called to congratulate him on his elevation. Clement had been a simple monk. "I am sighing for my cloister, cell, and books," he said to the cardinal: "you must not run away with the impression that I think myself the Moutardier du Pape."

Mud, To throw, or sling, in American political slang, is to bespatter an adversary with abuse or calumny. A mud-slinger is one who deals in this sort of warfare. Archbishop Whately's saying, "If you only throw dirt enough, some of it is sure to stick," is frequently quoted in America with "mud" substituted for "dirt." Beaumarchais, in "The Barber of Seville," says, "Calomniez, calomniez, il en reste toujours quelque chose" (“Calumniate, calumniate, something will always remain behind"). Both expressions are avatars of the phrase used by Bacon in "De Augment. Scient.," section 8, 2, "Audacter calumniare, semper aliquid hæret" ("Calumniate boldly, some of it will always remain"). But Bacon may only have been quoting a familiar saying, for the identical words are found in Manlius's "Collectanea" (1563) and Kaspar Peucer's "Historia Carcerum" (1605), both quotations relating to one Midias (Medius ?), a well-known calumniator, who was fond of quoting the saw.

Mugwump, a corruption of the Algonquin Mugquomp, meaning “great man," "leader," ," "chief," an American nickname applied to the independent voters and thinkers who hold themselves superior to party trammels. An alternative sobriquet is furnished by the compound dude-and-pharisee. The word Mugwump made its first literary appearance in John Eliot's translation of the Bible into Indian (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1661). It may be found there several times in Genesis xxxvi., where the English word, a very silly one, is duke, and the Hebrew alhiph, a "leader." There is an apocryphal story, invented

probably by some anti-Mugwump, that a Jesuit minister, translating the New Testament, and being at a loss for a rendering of "not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think," referred to an Indian convert. "Oh,' promptly returned the Indian, "that's Mugquomp." The term lingered in New England and portions of the West after the Indians had melted away, and became colloquial for a man of consequence, or, rather, one who deemed himself so. In this sense it occasionally crept into print. Thus, in 1840, during the Tippecanoe campaign, the Great Western, of Lake County, Indiana, edited by Solon Pobinson, said, "Then the great Mugwump was delivered of a speech, which the faithful loudly applauded." In 1865, Hiram Atkins, of the Argus and Patriot, Montpelier, Vermont, spoke of "Uncie Nat Eaton, formerly of Calais, but now Mugwump No. 2, of Middlesex." In 1872, Henry F. Keenan, of the Indianapolis Sentinel, used the word in a head-line, and in 1884 the New York Sun did the same, applying it to one D. O. Bradley, of Tarrytown. But it was not till the Blaine-Cleveland campaign that Mugwump in its present acceptation passed into current speech. James G. Blaine was nominated for the Presidency by the Republican convention on June 6, 1884. A strong opposition at once developed itself in the party, and the very next day an "Independent Republican" movement originated at a meeting in Boston, which was promptly taken up in New York and elsewhere. The supporters of the regular nomination complained that these Independents set themselves up as the superiors of their former associates, and when, on June 15, the New York Sun characterized them as Mugwumps, the term was gleefully caught up and adopted, and has ever since characterized the men and the methods of the Independent movement. General Horace Porter's definition, "A Mugwump is a person educated above his intellect," is in great vogue among anti-Mugwumps.

Mule, Here's your, a cant phrase popular among the Confederates during the civil war. There are several stories as to its origin. The best authenticated is that in the fall of 1861, just after the battle of Bull Run, a countryman came one day into Beauregard's camp at Centreville in search of a stray mule. Some of the boys swore they had seen the mule in the camp of another division, a half-mile distant, but hardly had the old man started when they shouted, "Come back, mister; here's your mule!" He turned to retrace his steps. Immediately the other camp, knowing only that some fun was in the air, took up the cry, "Mister, they 'uns lying to you 'uns; we 'uns hev got you 'uns mule," a travesty on the dialect of the troops from the mountainous regions of North Carolina. As he turned in the direction of this last call, he was hailed from still another command, "No, they haven't. Here's your mule !" And so the whole army joined in, and had the poor bewildered countryman changing his course, as the cry came from quarter to quarter, "Here's your mule." The phrase caught on after the story itself was forgotten. Soldiers are always ready for a joke, and none more so than those who dubbed themselves "Lee's Miserables." During their long, weary marches, if they chanced to encounter part of a wagon-train, the front ranks, glad of anything to relieve the monotony, would often break into the shout of "Here's your mule !" which would be taken up by the whole column. At the battle of Missionary Ridge, when the Confederates broke, and Hood, rushing among them, cried, "Here's your commander !" he was answered with the derisive shout, "Here's your mule!" One circumstance that helped to increase the popularity of the phrase was that it formed the refrain of a parody on Randall's song, "My Maryland," satirizing the supposed disposition of the Maryland refugees to seek" shade" offices rather than field-duty.

Mulligan Letters, certain letters written by Mr. James G. Blaine to Mr.

Warren Fisher, of Boston, which were industriously circulated by his opponents in the Presidential campaign of 1884. Mr. Mulligan, the book-keeper of Mr. Fisher, had been summoned during the session of 1876 before the Congressional investigation committee charged with the inquiry into alleged corrupt practices of Mr. Blaine in procuring legislation favorable to the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad. The letters then in evidence Mr. Blaine had got possession of, and read in the House, with an explanatory statement. Owing to his prostration by a sunstroke, the investigation was dropped. When Mr. Blaine, in 1884, became a candidate for the Presidency, another series of letters was produced by Mr. Mulligan, and it was these latter principally which figured largely in the campaign. The friends of the statesman stoutly maintained that there was nothing in them which implicated their candidate, but his enemies as vociferously cited them as incontrovertible evidence of guilt. The contention of the former may have been correct. Many, however, of the sentences, read apart from their context, with the frequent injunctions to "Burn this letter," have a doubtful sound, and these, in that hot and well-contested struggle, were taken up as effective party-cries by Democrats and Mugwumps.

Mummy, Beaten to a,-i.., to a jelly. A correspondent of Notes and Queries makes a plausible suggestion as to the origin of the phrase:

Does it not refer to the medicinal substance formerly known as mummy, which kept its place in our dispensatories until pretty late in the last century? It was variously composed, and not always of the same consistence, but its general appearance would probably resemble that of soft pitch. I speak now of the spurious kinds, which were doubtless most common. Even the genuine sorts were not, however necessarily Egyptian. Penicher, in his "Traité des Embaumemens" (Paris, 1699), gives directions for the composition of mummy from human flesh expressly for medicinal purposes. He recommends certain parts only of the body to be used, and these to be dried, macerated, and spiced out of all likeness to their natural condition. Mummy so prepared entered into a great variety of balms and other medicants, for which Penicher in his concluding chapter gives recipes from old writers. Some of these have the consistence of oil, others that of an ointment. It is clear, from the references in Nares, that in our own country mummy and its preparations were well known, and from the make mummy of my flesh,' which Nares quotes from an old play, to beaten to a mummy,' is a natural and an easy step."

Murder, Killing no. "He who kills one man is accounted a murderer; he who kills a thousand, a hero," is a common saying, evidently a reminiscence of St. Cyprian,—“ Homicidium cum admittunt singuli crimen est, virtus vocatur cum publice geritur" (Epist. Donato, lib. ii. ep. ii.). The same thought recurs in Bishop Porteus's "Poem on Death :"

One murder makes a villain,

Millions a hero. Princes were privileged

To kill, and numbers sanctified the crime;

and Young's lines perhaps deserve a place under this heading:

One to destroy is murder by the law,

And gibbets keep the lifted hand in awe;
To murder thousands takes a specious name,
War's glorious art, and gives immortal fame.

Love of Fame, Satire vii.

Every American school-boy is familiar with the collocation on this topic between a father and son in "The Volunteers."

"Killing No Murder" is the title of a famous tract recommending the assassination of Cromwell. It is in the "Harleian Miscellany," and is ascribed to Colonel Silas Titus, to one Sexby, and others.

Murder will out. This phrase is used by Cervantes in "Don Quixote," Part I., Book iii., ch. viii., and also by Chaucer :

Mordre wol out, that see we day by day.

Nonnes Preestes Tale, l. 15058.

Shakespeare embodies the same thought in these words:

Murder, though it have no tongue, will speak
With most miraculous organ.

Hamlet, Act ii., Sc. 2.

But the idea is almost as ancient as the race. The Greeks had a proverbial expression, "The cranes of Ibycus," which was used in much the same sense. Ibycus, a famous lyrical poet of Greece, journeying to Corinth, was assailed by robbers. As he fell beneath their murderous strokes he looked round to see if any witnesses or avengers were nigh. No living thing was in sight but a flight of cranes soaring high overhead. He called on them, and to them committed the avenging of his blood. A vain commission, as it might have appeared, and as no doubt it did to the murderers appear. Yet it was not so; for these, sitting a little time after in the open theatre at Corinth, beheld this flight of cranes hovering above them, and one said scoffingly to another, "Lo, there, the avengers of Ibycus!" The words were caught up by some near them; for already the poet's disappearance had awakened anxiety and alarm. Being questioned, they betrayed themselves, and were led to their doom; and The cranes of Ibycus passed into a proverb.

The notion was once seriously held throughout Europe that the corpse of a murdered man would bleed at touch of the murderer. King James I. in his "Demonologie" expressly affirms this: "In a secret murther if the dead carkasse bee at any time thereafter handled by the murtherer it will gush out blood; as if the blood were crying to heaven for revenge of the murtherer, God having appointed that secret supernatural trial of the secret unnatural crime."

An instance tending to confirm this opinion is said to have occurred in the reign of Charles I., when the minister of a parish testified that the body of a woman suspected to have been murdered was taken out of the grave thirty days after her death and laid on the grass. The prosecution in this case was at the instance of a son of the deceased against his own father, grandfather, uncle, and aunt; and these four defendants, being required, touched each of them the dead body, whereupon, says the narrative, the brow of the defunct, which was before of a livid and carrion color, began to have a dew or sweat arise on it, which increased by degrees till the sweat ran down in drops on the face; the brow turned to a lively and fresh color, and the deceased opened one of her eyes and shut it again three several times; she likewise thrust out the ring- or marriage-finger three several times, and pulled it in again, and the finger dropped blood on the grass. Three of the four accused were convicted of the murder.

On some occasions the mere presence of the guilty person, even without his coming in contact with the deceased, was thought sufficient as a test; nor was it necessary that life should have been taken away by actual violence to constitute the crime. Janet Randall, it is related, was sent for by a man who imagined she had bewitched him, but he expired before her arrival. He had, however, "laid his death on her ;" and "how soon as she came in, the corpse having lain a good space, and not having bled any, immediately bled much blood, as a sure token that she was the author of his death."

It is not improbable that the origin of this superstition may be sought in the misapplication of a passage of Scripture,-"The voice of thy brother's blood calleth unto me from the ground." So vehement were the prejudices of our progenitors, that little further evidence of guilt was demanded. What, indeed, could equal the interposition of the divine decree in pointing out the offender? Yet the truth of this test was disputed among the Continental lawyers, who recommended that the body of the deceased should be presented before the suspected murderer in chains, to discover whether he should mani

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