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and which he uses also in "Troilus and Cressida :"

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An he be proud with me, I'll pheese his pride.

Halliwell says it is a Westmoreland expression, meaning to beat, to chastise, to humble. Schmidt explains it as "probably a verb signifying any kind of teasing and annoying." Gifford says it is still used in the same sense in the west of England. And J. Crosby informs us that in "the north of England they have a word pronounced phaze, meaning to make an impression upon, to stir up, to arouse; as in 'I called the man a scoundrel, but it never phazed him."" This, it will be seen, is exactly the American expression, which is used only in the negative form.

A teacher in Vanderbilt University, speaking recently of a teacher in Kentucky, said. 'Nothing fazes him."-Trans. Amer. Philolog. Assoc., xvii. 39.

Well, 'has given me my quietus est; I felt him
In my guts; I'm sure 'has feez'd me.

VILLIERS: The Chances (1682)

Fast and loose, the name, in Shakespeare's time, of the cheating game or trick, now known as "pricking the garter" or prick at the loop, practised upon the innocents at fairs and races by gypsies and sharpers. A narrow belt or strap is doubled and rolled up, and, with the double or loop in the centre, is laid on its edge on a board. The dupe is induced to bet that he can put a skewer into the loop while the strap is being unrolled, but by a little dexterity the sharper can draw it out in such a way as to make this impossible. Hence to play fast and loose" has come to mean, to be unreliable, and is applied to a person who says one thing and does another:


Betrayed I am :

O this false soul of Egypt! this grave charm,

Whose eye becked forth my wars, and called them home;

Whose bosom was my crownet, my chief end,

Like a right gypsy, hath, at fast and loose,
Beguiled me to the very heart of loss.

Antony and Cleopatra, Act iv., Sc. 12.

To sell a bargain well is as cunning as fast and loose.

Love's Labor's Lost, Act iii., Sc. 1.

Fast bind, fast find, a proverb of great antiquity, on which Shakespeare has bestowed this encomium:

Fast bind, fast find; :

A proverb never stale in thrifty mind.

Merchant of Venice, Act ii., Sc. 5.

Fat. All the fat's in the fire. Fat is a cant word for money, luck, or other good thing. Thus, in theatrical slang it designates a part with telling lines and situations, one in which the actor can show off to good advantage; among printers it is applied to blank spaces in composition, or, more technically, leaded matter which is paid for at the same rate as solid; and with the general public a fat thing means something very profitable. Hence a num


ber of derivative phrases, as to cut it fat, = to show off, to exhibit one's self in gorgeous costume, to cut up fat, to leave a large estate, etc. Per contra," All the fat's in the fire" means it's all over, it's all up, down on one's luck, etc. The proverb is an old one, and may be found in Heywood.

I don't want to rob Miss Claremont of her fat, but her part must be cut down.-The Referee, April 15, 1888.

Printed in large type, with plenty of what the unpleasant printers call fat, meaning thereby blank spaces, upon thick paper.-HOLMES: Guardian Angel, ch. xxiv.

Gentlemen, in alarming waistcoats and steel watchguards, promenading about, three abreast, with surprising dignity, or, as the gentleman in the next box facetiously observes, cutting it uncommon fat!-DICKENS: Sketches by Boz.

The old banker died in course of time, and, to use the affectionate phrase common on such ccasions, cut up prodigiously well.-THACKERAY: Book of Snobs, ch. vii.

Fat friend." Alvanley, who's your fat friend?" This is the well-known snub administered by Beau Brummel to his whilom bosom-friend the Prince Regent when upon meeting him face to face in company after their rupture the Prince seemingly failed to recognize the Beau. The version here given, probably the true story of the affair, first appeared in print only quite recently, when the incident was recalled by the success of Mr. Richard Mansfield in "Beau Brummel" at the Madison Square Theatre, New York. In the play the scene is laid in Pall Mall. It really occurred in the Argyle Rooms, in Regent Street, which have since been pulled down. "Soon after Beau Brummel had fallen under the royal displeasure, he, Lord Alvanley, the wit, and some other members of the male fine fleur of London society, gave a ball at these rooms. The Prince Regent was one of the guests. When his royal highness arrived, the hosts went in a body to receive him at the door. He shook hands with all except the Beau, of whom he took no notice. he was walking up the ball-room on Lord Alvanley's arm, between two rows of his future subjects, Brummel tapped Alvanley on the shoulder, and said, in a loud voice, “Alvanley, who's your fat friend?" This is the authentic story, as related by Beau Brummel himself, when he was living in poverty in Caen, to the man who told it to the writer."-BYRON P. STEVENSON, in Illustrated American, 1890.


Fate cannot harm me, I have dined to-day. The concluding lines in Sydney Smith's famous poetical Recipe for Salad (Memoir, p. 374) are,Serenely full, the epicure would say,

Fate cannot harm me, I have dined to-day.

The last line is probably a reminiscence of Horace :

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The witty divine may have been more directly indebted to Dryden's imitation of Horace,

or to Cowley's,

Happy the man, and happy he alone,

He who can call to-day his own!

He who, secure within, can say,

To-morrow do thy worst, for I have lived to-day,—

To-morrow let my sun his beams display

Or in clouds hide them; I have lived to-day.

Father of his country (L. " Pater Patriæ" or "Parens Patriæ"), the title originally devised for Marius by the Senate and Forum of Rome, in honor of his victories, B.C. 102-1, over the northern barbarians, but refused by him. Subsequently Cicero accepted it when tendered him as a recognition of his services in unmasking the conspiracy of Catiline. It was borne with less reason by several of the Cæsars, and was one of the titles of Andronicus Palæologus, of Cosmo dei Medici, of Frederick I., Emperor of Germany, and of numerous others. In American history it has been applied with special pertinence to George Washington. The similar title, Father of his People, was worn by the kindly and generous Louis XII. of France, and by the ami. able Christian III. of Denmark.

Aux filles de bonnes maisons
Comme il avait su plaire,
Ses sujets avaient cent raisons
De le nommer leur père.

BERANGER: Le Roi d'Yvetot.

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Reynolds, in his eulogium, 1783, embalming the memory of G. M. Mozer, the Academician, writes, "He may truly be said in every sense to have been the father of the present race of artists." This reminds one of Charles II., who, when they told him that he was called "the father of his people," laughed, and said that "he was indeed of a good many of them."

Favorite leg. This humorous colloquialism, with its parallels, "favorite corn," etc., is traceable to Beau Brummel. Being seen limping on Bond Street, he explained that he had injured his leg, and, added he, "the worst of it is, it was my favorite leg."

Feather in his cap. The origin of this phrase, as designating a distinction or achievement, was probably the custom in vogue among the followers of woodcraft everywhere to wear a trophy of their prowess, generally a feather (in the Tyrol it is the beard of the chamois), in their caps. In Scotland it is still customary for the sportsman who kills the first woodcock to pluck out a feather and wear it in his cap.

It hath been an antient custom among them that none shoulde wear a fether but he who had killed a Turk, to whom onlie yt was lawful to shew the number of fethers in his cappe.' -RICHARD HANSARD: Discription of Hungary, Anno 1599, Lansdowne MS., 775, fol. 149, in the British Museum.

When the title of king was offered to Oliver Cromwell in 1658, and he refused the offer, saying, "Royalty is but a feather in a man's cap: let children enjoy their rattle," he may have referred to another and less distinguishing practice:

Naturall Idiots and Fooles haue and still do accustome themselves to weare in their cappes cocks' feathers, or a hat with a necke and head of a cocke on the top, and a bell thereon.MINSHEU, 1617.

Feather, To show the white, to lose heart, to exhibit one's self as a coward. The pure-breed game-cock has only red and black feathers. A crossbreed bird is known by a white feather in his tail. The slightest impurity of strain is said to destroy the bird's pluck: hence cocks who showed a white feather were never trained for the pit. The common adage, "Any cock will fight on its own dunghill," is frequently qualified by the addition that it must be one without a white feather to fight in the pit.

Feathers. Three feathers, enclosed in a coronet, with the motto Ich dien ("I serve"), form the crest of the Prince of Wales. Crest and motto are said to have belonged to the blind king of Bohemia whom the Black Prince overcame at Cressy, and to have been first assumed by the Black Prince. But the story has no historical basis. The triple plume, as well as feathers of various numbers, seems, indeed to have come into particular use in the time of Edward III., from 1327 to 1377. But it was not unknown before that time. Guillim states that "the ostrich's feathers in plume were sometimes also the device of King Stephen, who gave them with this word, 'Vi nullo invertitur ordo,'-' No force alters their fashion,'-alluding to the fold and fall of the feather, which, however the wind may shake it, it cannot disorder it; as likewise is the condition of kings and kingdoms well established." He does not mention the number of feathers, so it is possible that the triple plume is more distinctly connected with Edward III. But even at that time it was not the distinctive cognizance of the Prince of Wales, being borne by

others of the royal family. Not till the reign of Henry VII. was the triple plume within a coronet restricted to the eldest son of the sovereign.

But the three feathers seem to be an ancient and wide-spread symbol. In the Santa Casa at Loretto a marble sculpture of three feathers arranged in nearly the same position as those borne by the Prince of Wales is described as the emblême magnifique of Lorenzo dei Medici, father of Leo X. Sir Thomas Roe, who was sent on a mission to India by James I., describes the plume of heron's feathers worn by the Mogul emperors of Hindostan when they took the field. Tavernier, the French traveller, says a plume of three heron's feathers was worn by the Ottoman Porte, explaining that it had a military meaning and was a symbol of command. On taking the field the Ottoman Porte gave one of the feathers to the grand vizier, who was acknowledged by the whole army as their commander-in-chief. Nadir Shah, who in the eighteenth century conquered Asia from Bagdad to Delhi, wore three black heron's feathers in his diadem. It is not impossible that the three feathers belonging to the Persian, the Mogul, or the Turk may have been borrowed from the Brahminical worship and represent the three deities of fire, air, and water. According to Brahminical teaching, all the gods of the universe were resolved into these three conceptions, which in their turn are symbolized in the mystic letters A.U.M., representing the three in one, as the idea of one supreme spirit which is sometimes personified as Brahma, sometimes as Vishnu, sometimes as Siva. Some authorities derive "Ich dien" from Sanscrit words meaning not "I serve," but "I shine." But the weight of authority seems to favor the derivation from the Anglo-Saxon “Ic thian," meaning "Í serve."

Feed a cold and starve a fever, the epigrammatic form in which a bit of old-wife medical lore has expressed itself.

Another friend assured me it was policy to "feed a cold and starve a fever." I had both. So I thought it best to feed myself up for the cold, and then keep dark and let the fever starve awhile. In a case of this kind I seldom do things by halves. I ate pretty heartily. I conferred my custom upon a stranger who had just opened his restaurant that morning. He waited near me in respectful silence until I had finished feeding my cold, when he inquired if the people about Virginia were much afflicted with colds. I told him I thought they were. He then went out and took in his sign.-MARK TWAIN: Choice Works.

Feet. How's your poor feet? a popular catch-word, used as a jocular salutation without any definite meaning. It was very popular in England in the early sixties, and is said to have originated at a performance of "The Dead Heart," when that play was first brought out. One of the characters says, "My heart is dead, dead, dead," whereat a voice from the gallery shouted, And 'ow's your poor feet?" which nearly brought the play to a close.

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Fellow-feeling. In a prologue which Garrick wrote and spoke on behalf of the Drury Lane Theatrical Fund, before the play "The Wonder" was acted, appeared the following lines:

Their cause I plead,-plead it in heart and mind;

A fellow-feeling makes one wondrous kind.

His performance in "The Wonder" marked Garrick's last appearance on the stage, Monday June 10, 1776. Garrick may have had in mind the passage in Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy," "I would help others, out of a fellow-feeling;" but this in its turn is a reminiscence of Virgil:

Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco.-Eneid, Book i., 1. 630.
("Being not unacquainted with woe, I learn to help the unfortunate.")
Felt. In his "Urania," Holmes has a clever pun upon this word:
Mount the new castor; ice itself will melt;

Boots, gloves, may fail; the hat is always felt.

But he had been anticipated by the authors of the "Rejected Addresses" in their imitation of Crabbe:

The youth, with joy unfeigned,
Regained the felt, and felt what he regained;

and they in their turn had been anticipated by Thomas Heywood in a song:

But of all felts that may be felt,

Give me your English beaver.

Fence, On the, in American political slang, undecided, neutral; generally used in a sarcastic sense and applied to those men of impartial minds who wait to see, as another pretty phrase has it, "how the cat will jump." Archdeacon Trench, in his "English Past and Present," points out how singular it is not only that the same idea is embodied in the Latin prævaricato,-viz., "straddling with distorted legs," but also that the classical phrase carries with it the same figurative meaning.

A kind o' hangin' 'round an' settin' on the fence, Till Providence pinted how to jump an' save the most expense. LOWELL: Biglow Papers, ii. Ferguson. It's all very well, Mr. Ferguson, but you can't lodge here. This was once a favorite phrase in England, and is still remembered. Thus, G. A. Sala, writing from Wellington, New Zealand, in 1886, to the London Telegraph, and describing "the chockablock plethora at the hotels" and his disdainful repulse by Boniface after Boniface, recalls "that famous but inscrutable utterance of the very first year of the Victorian Epoch," and asks, "Who was Ferguson, and where did he seek to lodge, and on what ground was he denied shelter? I shall not descend contented to the tomb until I have solved the mystery of Ferguson." A contributor to Notes and Queries came at once to Mr. Sala's aid with the following story: "About the time to which Mr. Sala alludes, the celebrated Marquis of Waterford was in full swing, and had a friend, a Captain Ferguson. At the end of one of their sprees they had become separated, and the marquis found his way home to the house of his uncle, the Bishop or Archbishop of Armagh, a large mansion at the south corner of Charles Street, St. James's Square. The marquis had gone to bed, when a thundering knock came to the door. The marquis, suspecting who was the applicant, threw up the window and said, 'It's all very fine, Mr. Ferguson, but you don't lodge here.' For many years the saying became. popular, and the particulars took a deep hold on my memory, which still retains them."-Notes and Queries, seventh series, i. 46.


Festina lente ("Make haste slowly"), from the Greek proverb Eneide Bpadéws, a phrase made famous by the Emperor Augustus, who was fond of quoting it, as well as the analogous "Sat celeriter fit quidquid fiat satis bene" ("That is done fast enough which is done well enough"). So Sir Amyas Paulet, when he saw that too much haste was made in any matter, was wont to say, "Stay awhile, that we may make an end the sooner" (BACON : Apothegms); and so Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet:" "Wisely and slow; they stumble that run fast." A similar moral is conveyed by Esop's fable of the Hare and the Tortoise, and by all that cycle of proverbial expressions whereof the most familiar are the English "The more haste the less speed," "The race is not always to the swift," "Rome was not built in a day," etc. The same bit of proverbial wisdom has found a voice in the oft-quoted German "Eile mit Weile," and, with Spartan brevity and considerable fidelity to the original "Festina lente," in the colloquial Americanism "Go slow."

Sir John Lawrence was not so anxious for an immediate and wholesale development of the railway system. Festina lente, Eile mit Weile, was the maxim by which he was dis

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