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rattlesnake, it gives no warning of its approach. Hence it is often known as the dumb rattlesnake. The word has been caught up as a nickname for noisome and noiseless enemies, and applied first to the Indians, next to the Dutch colonists (see Irving's "Knickerbocker"), and lastly and more permanently to the anti-war Democrats who resided in the North and sympathized more or less secretly with the South during the civil war.

He lived to cast a dying vote for General Jackson, and his son, the first Dr. Mulbridge, survived to illustrate the magnanimity of his fellow-townsmen during the first year of the civil war, as a tolerated copperhead.-W. D. HOWELLS: Dr. Breen's Practice, ch. ix.

Copyright. Under the existing law of the United States, copyright is granted for twenty-eight years, with the right of extension for fourteen more; in all, forty-two years. The term of copyright in other countries is as follows: Mexico, Guatemala, and Venezuela, in perpetuity.

Colombia, author's life and eighty years after.

Spain, author's life and eighty years after.
Belgium, author's life and fifty years after.
Ecuador, author's life and fifty years after.
Norway, author's life and fifty years after.
Peru, author's life and fifty years after.
Russia, author's life and fifty years after.
Tunis, author's life and fifty years after.

Italy, author's life and forty years after; the full term to be eighty years in any event.

France, author's life and thirty years after.
Germany, author's life and thirty years after.
Austria, author's life and thirty years after.
Switzerland, author's life and thirty years after.

Hayti, author's life, widow's life, children's lives, and twenty years after the close of the latest period.

Brazil, author's life and ten years after.

Sweden, author's life and ten years after.

Roumania, author's life and ten years after.

Great Britain, author's life and seven years after his decease; to be fortytwo years in any event.

Bolivia, full term of author's life.

Denmark and Holland, fifty years.

Japan, author's life and five years after.

South Africa, author's life; fifty years in any event.

Cordon bleu. Henry III. of France was elected King of Poland on the day of the Pentecost, and upon the same day, by the death of Charles IX., he succeeded to the throne of France. In token of his gratitude he instituted the order of the Saint-Esprit, limiting the number of knights to a hundred, exclusive of the officers of the order. The collar worn by members of the order upon state occasions was formed of fleur-de-lis in gold, and suspended to it was a cross of eight points, with a dove in the centre; upon the reverse of the cross was a design representing St. Michael slaying the dragon. When the collar was not donned, the cross was worn suspended to a piece of blue silk, called the cordon bleu. As time went on, it became the custom to call any one who had achieved eminence in his profession a cordon bleu. Finally it came to be applied only to cooks. M. Littré remarks that the blue apron formerly worn by cooks may have helped to earn for them this flattering designation.

Corker. This slang phrase is in use in the theatres as a synonyme for a

duffer, one who corks or bottles up another actor's effects, and in the world at large for something or somebody unusually large, remarkable, or excellent, something that closes up or settles a question.

The Crown Prince's lunch-bill was rather a corker;
No wonder his Highness refused for to pay.

"Do you love him, Mabel?"

There was an unmistakable ring of triumph in the proud father's voice as he addressed the question to the beautiful, queenly girl who stood with downcast eyes before him.

"Yes," she answered softly, the rich blood mantling her cheek and brow.

"I have told him," rejoined the father, "that I shall interpose no obstacles in his way. If he can win your affections, he has my full and free consent. I may say to you, further, my daughter," he continued, that in gaining the love of a young man like Harold Billmore you have made a conquest that gratifies my pride as a father and commends itself to my judgment as a man. He is of good family, upright, honorable, high-minded, the possessor of a competence, and in all respects the one whom above all others I should have chosen as the guardian of my only daughter's happiness."

"Yes, papa," she replied, her face lighting up with a smile, "he's a corker!"-Chicago


Corn, I acknowledge the, a colloquial Americanism, meaning "I give in," "I retract," usually in regard to some special point not involving the whole question at issue. Many explanations, more or less obviously manufactured, have been given as to the origin of the phrase. The following, however, has an air of plausibility and may be authentic. In 1828, Andrew Stewart, a member of Congress, said in a speech that Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana sent their hay-stacks, cornfields, and fodder to New York and Philadelphia for sale. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, called him to order, declaring that those States did not send hay-stacks or cornfields to New York for sale. "Well, what do you send ?" asked Stewart. "Why, horses, mules, cattle, and hogs.' "Well, what makes your horses, mules, cattle, and hogs? You feed one hundred dollars' worth of hay to a horse. You just animate and get upon the top of your hay-stack and ride off to market. How is it with your cattle? You make one of them carry fifty dollars' worth of hay and grass to the Eastern market. How much corn does it take, at thirty-three cents a bushel, to fatten a hog?" "Why, thirty bushels." "Then you put that thirty bushels into the shape of a hog, and make it walk off to the Eastern market." Then Mr. Wickliffe jumped up and said, "Mr. Speaker, I acknowledge the corn."

Corporations have no souls. This legal maxim was first laid down by Sir Edward Coke in the case of Sutton's Hospital (10 Rep. 32): "They [corporations] cannot commit treason, nor be outlawed nor excommunicate, for they have no souls." Lord Thurlow subsequently paraphrased this maxim in his own rough way: "You never expected justice from a corporation, did you? They have neither a soul to lose nor a body to kick."

Corruptio optimi pessima (L., "Corruption in the best is the worst corruption"), a phrase much used by the early Latin Fathers of the Church. They applied it originally to bad priests; afterwards it was extended to describe the sins of all who had received grace and were offending against the light; and now it is a general expression, meaning, the better the thing the worse its abuse. And the most curious part of the whole matter is, that in so broadening its application it has really gone round the circle and come back to its starting-point. For there is little doubt that the phrase of the Fathers originated with Aristotle in his "Ethics of Nicomachus" (Book viii., ch. x.), where, in speaking of governments, he says that "Tyranny being the corruption of the best form [i.e., of kingly government] is therefore the worst." Elsewhere he uses the same expression in other connections. The idea, of course, is a commonplace that appears in many other forms in literature,-i.e.:

For fairest things grow foulest by foul deeds;
Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds.


Would it were I had been false, not you!
I that am nothing, not you that are all;
I, never the worse for a touch or two

On my speckled hide; not you, the pride
Of the day, my swan, that a first fleck's fall
On her wonder of white must unswan, undo!

BROWNING: The Worst of It.

Cotton to, meaning to like, to take to, to agree with, is often looked upon as a vulgarism, sometimes even as a modern Americanism. Bartlett includes it in his Dictionary. But this common colloquialism, still in use on both sides of the Atlantic, is a survival of a respectable English word. It is found occasionally in the Elizabethan writers, but the earliest example in literature is probably the following, from Thomas Drant's translation of Horace (1567):

So feyneth he, things true and false

So always mingleth he,

That first with midst, and midst with last,
May cotton and agree.

Cotton is King. This famous ante-bellum cry, with which the Southern slave-holders answered the arguments of the Abolitionists, originated with David Christy as the title of his book "Cotton is King; or, Slavery in the Light of Political Economy" (1855). James Henry Hammond quoted the phrase in the United States Senate, March, 1858, and it at once became a popular by-word.

Country, Love of. Dr. Johnson, as reported by Boswell, held that patriotism was the last refuge of a scoundrel. Some of the advanced thinkers of to-day (as may be seen s. v. CITIZEN OF THE WORLD) are inclined to look upon it as a provincial virtue, now rightly obsolescent in the larger sympathies that crave to enclose the world. Nevertheless, none deny that in the past it has been an effective factor in civilization, and has inspired the true heroic in thought and deed. Goldsmith, in his story of Assan, draws an ideal lubberland where there are no vices, and consequently where the love of country is stigmatized on account of its correlative hatred or contempt of the stranger. But he describes it only to condemn. He saw no mere narrowness in the patriot's boast,

Such is the patriot's boast, where'er we roam,—
His first, best country ever is at home.

The Traveller, 1. 73.

Nor did Shakespeare, who makes his Coriolanus say,—

Had I a dozen sons, each in my love alike and none less dear than thine and my good Marcius, I had rather eleven die nobly for their country than one voluptuously surfeit out of action, Coriolanus, Act i., Sc. 3,

and puts in Wolsey's mouth the advice,

Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's,

Thy God's, and truth's; then if thou fall'st, O Cromwell,
Thou fall'st a blessed martyr!

Henry VIII., Act iii., Sc. 2.

Probably here is a reminiscence of Horace's

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori,

which in its turn was a reminiscence of Homer, thus rendered by Pope.
And for our country 'tis a bliss to die.
1. 583.

Iliad, Book xv.,

So Addison's Cato:

What a pity is it

That we can die but once to save our country!
Cato, Act iv., Sc. 4.

Though the evolutionist looks forward to the time when love of country shall have been merged in a world-love, the United States has been found in the present time as large an entity as the average citizen could compass. Indeed, the dream of the enthusiast of a country which shall know no North, no South, no West, no East, is still little more than a dream. Utterances like the two following, from Robert C. Winthrop, represent rather the unattained ideal than the actual practice of the majority:

Our Country,-whether bounded by the St. John's and the Sabine, or however otherwise bounded or described, and be the measurements more or less,-still our Country, to be cherished in all our hearts, to be defended by all our hands.-Toast at Faneuil Hall on the Fourth of July, 1845.

There are no points of the compass on the chart of true patriotism.-Letter to Boston Commercial Club in 1879.

A famous patriotic sentiment, embodying a principle whose virtue might be casuistically questioned, was the following, given at Norfolk, Virginia, April, 1816, by Stephen Decatur :

Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong.

There may be a reminiscence here of Cowper :

England, with all thy faults I love thee still,
My country!

The Task, Book ii.: The Timepiece, 1. 206.

as in Cowper there is an undoubted reminiscence of Churchill:

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Country. We left our country for our country's good. When Young's tragedy of "The Revenge" was acted by convicts at Sydney, New South Wales, in 1796, George Barrington, himself a convict, penned a prologue in which occur the famous lines,—

From distant climes, o'er wide-spread seas, we come,
Though not with much éclat or beat of drum;
True patriots we, for, be it understood,
We left our country for our country's good.
No private views disgraced our generous zeal,
What urged our travels was our country's weal;
And none will doubt but that our emigration

Has proved most useful to the British nation.

The idea was anticipated by George Farquhar in “The Beaux' Stratagem," written some ninety years before Barrington's prologue. Gibbet, the highwayman, in answer to Aimwell's question, "You have served abroad, sir?" says, "Yes, sir, in the plantations; 'twas my lot to be sent into the worst of service. I would have quitted it, indeed, but a man of honor, you knowBesides, 'twas for the good of my country that I should be abroad. Anything for the good of one's country; I'm a Roman for that." Both Farquhar and Barrington, it will be seen, have euphemistic reference to transportation, but the lines are now so frequently applied to any departure from one's native land, whether voluntary or involuntary, that it may be doubted whether the original meaning has not been as completely superseded as the form of punishment to which it obliquely refers. In a complimentary sense the phrase had already been applied to Sir Francis Drake by Charles Fitzgeffry, circa 1596.

Leaving his country for his country's sake.

Coventry, To send one to, to taboo, to ostracize, to boycott,―a colloquial phrase used mainly by English school-boys. Coventry may be a corruption of Quarantine through Cointrie, the ancient form for Coventry. The expres

sion “To send to Quarantine" is found in Swift, but no earlier exemplar of the modern phrase is to be found than 1785, in Grose's “Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue."

Cow with the iron tail, a humorous colloquialism for a pump, in allusion to the current jest thus alluded to by Dr. Holmes in "The Professor at the Breakfast-Table:" "It is a common saying of a jockey that he is all horse, and I have often fancied that milkmen get a stiff upper carriage and an angular movement that reminds one of a pump and the working of a handle."


Cradle. The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world. This English expression is anticipated in the story told by Plutarch of Themistocles, who called his son the most powerful person in Greece. "For the Athenians govern Greece, I the Athenians, my wife me, and my son my wife." In the Percy Anecdotes" the same story is modernized. A nobleman accosted a lame school-master and asked him his name. "I am R. T.," was the answer, "and the master of this parish." Why, how so?" "I am the master of the children of the parish, the children are masters of the mothers, the mothers are the rulers of the fathers, and consequently I am the master of the whole parish." There is another sense, of course, in which the proverb may be taken, a sense beautifully expressed in the Spanish analogue, "What is sucked in with the mother's milk runs out with the shroud."

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Cradles rock us nearer to the tomb. In his "Night Thoughts," v., line 718, Young has the lines,

And cradles rock us nearer to the tomb.
Our birth is nothing but our death begun.

Long before Young Bishop Hale had said,

Death borders upon our birth, and our cradle stands in the grave.-Epistles, Dec. iii. Ep. 2.

John Dyer's lines are only faintly parallel :

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Crank. It is said that Donn Piatt claimed to have invented this familiar Americanism, and to have applied it originally to Horace Greeley, the comparison being to the crank of a hand-organ, which is continually engaged in grinding out the same old tunes. At present the word has a much wider application, and means not merely a man with a hobby, but more especially an eccentric character just hovering on the border-line between sanity and insanity. The word was brought into newspaper prominence at the trial of Guiteau, Garfield's assassin, the most terrible instance of the crank in modern history. A good second was Henry L. Norcross, who, in 1891, killed himself and wrecked Russell Sage's office with a bomb.

The case of dangerous delusion which received more attention in the newspapers than any within the past ten years, except Guiteau, was that of James M. Dougherty, who loved the actress Mary Anderson, and believed that she loved him.

He annoyed her for a long time before he was taken care of by the authorities. His was the same old crank trouble of persecution and exalted ideas. He assured me that he could have married ladies of rank and fortune. He wrote a long treatise to explain all natural phenomena, the creation and all the sciences. He sent President Cleveland a long congratulatory telegram on his election.

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