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the following eight persons, who accordingly wrote the Bridgewater Treatises : Dr. Chalmers, John Kidd, Rev. M. Whewell, Sir Charles Bell, Peter Roget, Rev. Dr. Buckland, Rev. Wm. Kirby, and Wm. Prout.

Brook of millions. A serious obstacle to the development of great industries in Switzerland is the scarcity of coal in that country; but the smaller industries, profiting by the streams and natural water-falls that abound, are the most numerous and active perhaps in the world. One little stream, the Aa,a brook, indeed, about three yards wide,-supplies the motor force for thirty considerable manufactories within a limit of about four and a half miles, its entire length. It rises in the Pfäffiger-See, east of Zurich, and flows into the Greiffen-See, and the difference between the level of the two lakes is only about three hundred feet. From the amount of wealth it has created, it is called Le Ruisseau des Millions.

Broth of a boy, a phrase much affected by the Irish, yet not unknown in England and America. As broth is the essence of beef, a broth of a boy is the essence of what a boy should be, the right sort of a boy :

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Buckeye State, an American nickname for the State of Ohio, from its abundant supply of horse-chestnut-trees, commonly called buckeyes.

Bucktail, a political nickname originally given to an order of the Tammany Society, who wore in their hats, upon certain occasions, a portion of the tail of a deer. When De Witt Clinton was running his eventually successful campaign for the governorship of New York, the members of Tammany were generally inimical to him. Hence "Bucktail" came to be a nickname for all anti-Clintonians.

Buckwheat-cakes are usually supposed to be a New England invention, and indeed within the last quarter of a century the American visitors to Paris have made the fortune of a spécialité de buckwheat-cakes. But in very fact the cakes are of French origin, and those who like them may eat them to-day in their primitive simplicity as galettes de sarrasin at almost any village west of the Seine in Normandy.

Bug-eaters, a term applied derisively to the inhabitants of Nebraska by travellers on account of the poverty-stricken appearance of many parts of the State. If one living there were to refuse to eat bugs, he would, like Polonius, soon be "not where he eats, but where he is eaten."

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Bugaboo, Bugbear, Bogie. When the bigoted royalist Maitland blasphemously asserted that God was but a "bogie of the nursery," he unwittingly showed great philological acumen. To the eye of the etymologist, the bogie with which nurses are wont to terrify their infant charges is, when divested of its traditional meaning, identical with the Slavonic Bôg and the Baga of the cuneiform inscriptions, both names for the Supreme Being, which, by gradual alterations and corruptions, have given rise to an infinite number of terms for supernatural (and usually unpleasant) beings. Thus, on the one hand, we have the Icelandic puké, or demon, the Gothic puke, or spectre, the English Puck, etc., and, on the other, the familiar bug, bogie, bugbear, bugaboo, etc. 'Such," says Prof. Fiske, "is the irony of fate towards a deposed deity!" From having figured as the unclouded sun and the chief of all the gods, the supreme majesty of deity is in English but the name of an ugly ludicrous fiend, a scarecrow, or, at the best, a harmless goblin. The Deity has, in very truth, become the bogie of the nursery.

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Very early in the history of the race mothers discovered the convenience of frightening their offspring into good behavior. Gibbon tells us that "Narses was the formidable sound with which the Syrian mothers were accustomed to terrify their infants." Speaking of Richard Cœur de Lion, the same writer says, "The memory of this lion-hearted prince, at the distance of sixty years, was celebrated in proverbial sayings by the grandsons of the Turks and Saracens against whom he had fought; his tremendous name was employed by the Syrian mothers to silence their infants; and if a horse suddenly started from the way, his rider was wont to exclaim, 'Dost thou think King Richard is in that bush?'"

Still another name used for a similar purpose is mentioned by Gibbon,— Huniades, titular King of Hungary in the middle of the fifteenth century: "By the Turks, who employed his name to frighten their perverse children, he was corruptly denominated 'Jancus Lain, or The Wicked.'" The intelligence, or want of intelligence, of English nurses has been productive of innumerable bogies. To say nothing of the ancient Raw Head and Bloody Bones (which occurs in "Hudibras"), we may gather from the following extract from Reginald Scot's "Discoverie of Witchcraft" the names of a few of the bogies used to torment little children within the Elizabethan age.

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In our childhood," says Scot, "our mothers' maids have so terrified us with an ugly devil having horns on his head, fire in his mouth, and a tail at his back, eyes like a basin, fangs like a dog. claws like a bear, a skin like a negro, and voice roaring like a lion, whereby we start and are afraid when we hear one cry, Boh! and they have so frayed us with bull-beggars, spirits, witches, urchins, elves, hags, fairies, satyrs, pans, faunes, sylvans, Kitt-with-the-candlestick, tritons, centaurs, dwarfs, giants, imps, calcars, conjurers, nymphs, changelings, incubus, Robin Goodfellow, the spoorn, the man-in-the-oak, the hell-wain, the fire-drake, the puckle, Tom Thumb, Hobgoblin, Tom Tumbler, Boneless, and such other bugbears, that we are afraid of our own shadows."

Sir Walter Scott, who quotes this passage in his "Demonology and Witchcraft," explains some of these strange terms, but leaves it to a "better demonologist than himself" to treat them more fully. In "Hudibras," besides Raw Head and Bloody Bones, another bogie is mentioned as being in common use,—namely, Lunsford. This was Colonel Lunsford, or Lunsfort, the governor of the Tower, and a man noted for his sobriety, industry, and courage. But Lilburn and others of the same party gloried in maligning him in every possible way. Among other scandalous charges, they led the ignorant populace to believe that he ate children.

The Loyalists affected to laugh at this accusation, and in the "Collection of Loyal Songs" it is alluded to thus:

So also Cleveland:

From Fielding and from Vavasour,

Both ill-affected men,

From Lunsford eke deliver us,

That eateth up children.

The post that came from Banbury
Riding in a blue rocket,

He swore he saw, when Lunsford fell,
A child's arm in his pocket.

But Lilburn was so far successful in his aim that, as has been said, Lunsford's name became odious and was added to the long list of nursery bogies.

According to Banks's "Earl of Essex" (a play ridiculed by Fielding in his

Tom Thumb the Great"), that noble lord was also used as a bogie during his own lifetime:

It was enough to say, Here's Essex come,
And nurses stilled their children with the fright.

Fielding substituted the name of Tom Thumb, though, as we have seen, Reginald Scot especially mentions Tom Thumb among the bogies of childhood, a fact which takes the edge off the intended satire.

Napoleon-or Boney, as he was called in the nursery-has done yeoman's service as a bogie in England. Boneyparty is in itself a name with a good palpable English meaning attached to it, which can be understanded of the people. It seems to have a natural affinity to Raw Head and Bloody Bones, Boneless, and such other bugbears. Curiously enough, the Duke of Wellington has never performed a like service in French nurseries, though he is the hero of certain English bogie rhymes. For example:

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In another, the same kind-hearted gentleman is represented as being "tall and straight as Rouen steeple," and dining and supping upon a never-failing supply of "naughty people."

It is said that Jewish mothers sometimes frighten their children with the name of Lilith. According to the Talmudists, Lilith was the wife of Adam before he married Eve. She refused to obey her husband, and left Paradise for the region of air. The legend is that her sceptre is still to be seen at night, and that she is especially the enemy of young children.

The "Encyclopædia Metropolitana" boldly declares that our word "lullaby” is derived from "Lilith abi!" (Lilith, avaunt!) But the inexorable Professor Skeat, who destroys all the charming old unreasonable and picturesque derivations, will have nothing to say to this, and gives an explanation too prosaic to be recorded here. Lilith was so bad that it was not unfitting her name should be used to frighten little boys and girls. She furnishes one of the few instances of a woman being utilized as a bogie.

Bull, John, a humorous personification of the British people, which originated with Arbuthnot. He is represented as a bluff, stout, honest, red-faced, irascible rustic, in leather breeches and top-boots, carrying a stout oaken cudgel in his hand and with a bull-dog at his heels.

That pestilent personage John Bull has assumed so concrete a form in our imaginations, with his top-boots and his broad shoulders and vast circumference, and the emblematic bulldog at his heels, that for most observers he completely hides the Englishman of real life. The ideal John Bull has hidden us from ourselves as well as from our neighbors, and the race which is distinguished above all others for the magnificent wealth of its imaginative literature is daily told-and, what is more, tells itself-that it is a mere lump of prosaic flesh and blood, with scarcely soul enough to keep it from stagnation. If we were sensible we should burn that ridiculous caricature of ourselves along with Guy Fawkes; but meanwhile we can hardly complain if foreigners are deceived by our own misrepresentations.-LESLIE STEPHEN.

Bullet. Every bullet has its billet,-i.e., its resting-place or destination. In military parlance billet is an official order requiring the person to whom it is addressed to provide board and lodging for the soldier bearing it. Hence the proverb means that only those are killed whose death Providence has assigned. Napoleon was a firm believer in the superstition embodied in the

saying. Thus, he said once to an officer, "My friend, if that ball were destined for you, it would be sure to find you, though you were to burrow a hundred feet under ground." And again at Montereau, in 1814, he refused to retire from an exposed position, saying, "Courage, my friends: the ball which is to kill me is not yet cast." When Nelson was warned by a lady not to expose himself needlessly in battle, he replied, "The bullet which hits me will have on it 'Horatio Nelson, his with speed.'"

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Mme. de Sévigné wrote, "Who can doubt that the cannon-ball which could distinguish M. de Turenne among a dozen was loaded for that purpose from all eternity?"

Bulls, Irish and not Irish. A bull is very cleverly defined by Sydney Smith as "an apparent congruity and real incongruity of ideas suddenly dis covered." Clever, yet not quite so clever as Coleridge: “A bull consists in a mental juxtaposition of incongruous ideas, with a sensation, but without the sense, of connection." Sydney Smith goes on to point out that a bull is the very reverse of wit; "for as wit discovers real relations that are not apparent, bulls admit apparent relations that are not real." He might have carried the idea still further, and shown that, while wit is acutely self-conscious, the bull, on the contrary, is born of a native humor, a coloring and distorting medium absolutely unconscious of itself. Its perpetrator is fully possessed of his own meaning, but is unconscious of the literal and objective sense of his own words. When Thomas Carlyle said in his "Oliver Cromwell" that "some omissions will also appear in this edition," he knew what he meant, and so do we, the understanding on both sides is identical,-but the recognition of the inadequacy of the words to convey that meaning is with us alone.

So much for definition. Now, what has etymology to say on the subject? Very little, and that little not much to the purpose. It was once the fashion to derive the term from one Obadiah Bull, an Irish lawyer residing in London in the reign of Henry VII., whose blunders of the sort were notorious. But Chaucer uses the word "bole” (in our modern sense of a verbal mistake), and, as Chaucer died half a century before Henry VII. was born, that etymology must go by the board. And with it also must go the idea that a bull, either in etymology or in essence, has any inevitable connection with the Irish. Mr. Edgeworth indeed has written an essay on "Irish Bulls," which almost goes the length of asserting, first, that bulls are not Irish; second, that there is no such thing as a bull. Without accompanying him to this extreme, we might readily allow that other nations err in the same delightful manner, and that many so-called bulls are really not bulls at all, because they are conscious and often successful efforts to snatch a grace beyond the reach of art. And even the bulls that refuse to be classified under any more complimentary head frequently result not from dulness but from extreme quickness of apprehension, the mind leaping to its conclusion without passing through the intermediate stages of the process.

When Shakespeare speaks of a custom "more honored in the breach than the observance," or of making "assurance doubly sure," when Johnson warns you not to "sell for gold what gold can never buy," they utter what looks like an absurdity to the purely logical sense, but the higher faculties refuse to recognize the absurdity, and gratefully occupy themselves in admiration of their audacious aptness. The same may be said of these other much quoted lines and phrases:

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THEOBALD: The Double Falsehood.

Fought all his battles o'er again,

And thrice he routed all his foes, and thrice he slew the slain.

DRYDEN: Alexander's Feast.

Shakespeare has not only shown human nature as it is, but as it would be found in situ ations to which it cannot be exposed.-JOHNSON: Lives of the Poets.

Every monumental inscription should be in Latin; for that being a dead language it will ever live. Ibid.

The last example is more properly a play upon words than a bull; yet it cannot be relegated to the degraded deep of punning, because there is a play on the idea as well as on the words. It is identical with Schiller's "To be immortal in art a thing must first be dead in life."

On the other hand, when Dryden made his heroine say,

My wound is great because it is so small,

the phrase is not a bull, because it is a conscious effort at antithetical effect. But as it falls short of its aim, as it is a step on the hither side of the sublime, we call it merely ridiculous, and feel that Dryden was rightly rebuked when the Duke of Buckingham shouted from his box,

Then 'twould be greater if 'twere none at all.

In his "Martinus Scriblerus" Pope supplies an instance of the "art of sinking," which is shrewdly suspected to be taken from his own juvenile epic of "Alcander." The poet is speaking of a frightened stag in full chase, who Hears his own feet and thinks they sound like more,

And fears the hind feet will o'ertake the fore.

But, again, one would not call this a bull. Here, however, are some unmis takable examples of the true taurine, selected from various authors of repute :

No one as yet had exhibited the structure of the human kidneys, Vesalius having only examined them in dogs.-HALLAM: Literature of Europe.

Unseen powers, like the deities of Homer in the war of Troy, were seen to mingle at every step with the tide of sublunary affairs.-ALISON: Review of Guizot.

It is curious to observe the various substitutes for paper before its invention.-D'ISRAELI : Curiosities of Literature.

I saw no corn standing in ricks; a thing I never saw before, and would not have believed it had I not seen it.-COBBETT: Rural Rides.

The astonished Yahoo, smoking, as well as he could, a cigar, with which he had filled all his pockets.-WARREN: Ten Thousand a Year.

An unmistakable bull (whose glory, however, belongs to the translation and not to the original) occurs in Isaiah xxxvii. 36: "Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."

Johnson quotes Goldsmith as complaining, "Whenever I write anything the public makes a point to know nothing about it." Here is a true Hibernian bull, which, after all, is the most perfect of its kind. To the right perpetration of the bull there seems to go a kind of innocent and almost rollicking

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