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of the institutions already in operation. This is rendered necessary by reason of the denominational relations of nearly all institutions for higher education not under State control. To give public money to any one of these institutions would cause a great deal of jealousy and bitterness throughout the State. Again, if the money were distributed among the different institutions of the States a great deal of its effectiveness would be destroyed. Thus it will be seen that the States have, as a rule, adopted the most feasible plan. The number of institutions under the control of the several religious denominations is as follows:
Denomination of colleges and universities.
ORGANIZATION OF A NUMBER OF LEADING UNIVERSITIES.
Having shown the organization of the State universities, an attempt is here made to present in a somewhat similar manner the organization of a number of other leading institutions for higher education in the United States. These institutions are well equipped not only with able professors and instructors, excellently chosen libraries, and scientific apparatus, but with valuable buildings and large productive funds, both of which are necessary for effective work. Nearly all of the selected institutions provide for advanced work in graduate departments in addition to the regular undergraduate and professional courses. They are well supplied not only with endowed professorships, but also with fellowships and scholarships to assist students in obtaining an education.
As will be observed, all the institutions with two exceptions are located in the extreme eastern section of the country, and among them are included the oldest institutions of the country. They are arranged in the order of their organization. The number of professors and students in the several departments in 1889-90 is given.
74 United Brethren
a The organization of Clark University is fully explained on p. 790.
IX.-REORGANIZATION OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE.
One of the most significant occurrences of the year was the reorganization of Columbia College, New York. President Low, in his report for 1889-90, treats this subject very fully, and the following facts are taken therefrom.
On the 6th of February, 1890, Columbia College in the city of New York, consisted of the School of Arts, the School of Law, the School of Mines, and the School of Political Science. In addition to these schools, which are under the direct control of the trustees of the college, the College of Physicians and Surgeons had become the Medical Department of Columbia College. The president, however, and the board of trustees have no responsibility as towards the medical department.'
Each of these schools, the School of Arts, the School of Law, the School of Mines, and the School of Political Science, had its own faculty, and each was administered without any reference to the others, almost without any consciousness of the others. There were indeed students of one school taking some
1 This state of affairs has since been changed, and the medical department now enjoys the benefits of the reorganization of the university.
studies in one or another of the other schools, but in order to do this they were obliged to matriculate and pay the fee of $5 in each school in which they studied. Seniors in the School of Arts were permitted to elect certain subjects in the other schools. In fact, the attitude of the institution towards the student was one of multiplied opportunities, but opportunities held more or less out of relation to each other. What seemed especially to be needed, from the point of view of the student, was such a unification of the institution as would make its varied opportunities more available to those students whose equipment and cay abilities justified them in desiring to study in more than one school.
The graduate work also stood in need of organization. It had grown to considerable proportions, but depended too much upon individual professors. There was no general standard to which all must conform.
"For this purpose," says President Low, "it was necessary to secure a body which could, in effect, direct the graduate work where it concerned itself with more than one school and provide a common standard for all the schools. Incidentally it was desirable, if possible, to place this work, in its general phases, under the charge of faculties rather than of individuals."
A faculty of philosophy was formed to take charge of the advanced work in philosophy, philology, and letters. The central body or university council was then formed, based primarily on the four university faculties of law, mines, political science, and philosophy, which between them comprise all the professors entitled to a seat in any faculty, and yet no professor sits in any more than one of them. The council was made to consist of twelve members, four of whom are men of letters, four of whom are men of science, and four of whom are men of law and political science.
It was decided that every student should matriculate simply as a student of Columbia, paying but the one matriculation fee, and thereafter that the facilities offered by any faculty or by all should be open to him, subject, of course, to any necessary regulations. Thus at one stroke Columbia ceased to be divided into fragments, and took upon herself the aspect of a university, wherein each department was related to every other and every one strengthened all.
The general control of the graduate work was also placed into the hands of the university council. "The result," says President Low, "has been to secure a common basis of requirem nt for the degrees of master of arts and doctor of philosophy, under whatever university faculty they may be obtained, which common basis represents a combination, for the most part, of the best requirements hitherto maintained in any quarter."
"The most important result of the reorganization of the institution thus far attained in its bearing upon the college proper is seen in the enlarged option already given to the members of the senior class. By a unanimous vote of the faculty of the School of Arts, it was resolved that courses under any university faculty designated by such faculty as open to seniors should be accepted as optional courses for seniors in the School of Arts. This action, being referred by the trustees to the president and university council with power, was unanimously indorsed by them. The senior year is thus made the point of contact between the college and the university. This arrangement, while it has the advantage of maintaining the dignity of the faculty of the college proper as a degree-granting faculty, has the other undoubted advantage of making the bachelor's degree seem, not so much the end of a student's course, as what it ought to be, merely an incident on the way to the true goal, the professional degree, or the degree of doctor of philosopy. While it in no way cheapens the bachelor's degree, it does shorten by one year the time required for the college and professional course combined."
Clark University, Worcester, Mass., was first opened for instruction, October 2, 1889. This institution was founded and endowed by Mr. Jonas G. Clark. Among the reasons given by Mr. Clark for choosing Worcester as the seat of the new foundation is the following: "Because its location is central among the best colleges of the East, and by supplementing rather than duplicating their work, he hopes to advance all their interests and to secure their good will and active support, that, together, further steps may be taken in the development of superior education in New England.""
The cornerstone of the main building was laid on October 22, 1887. The building is plain, substantial and well appointed, 204 x 114 feet, four stories high, and five in the centre, with superior facilities for heating, lighting, and ventilation, and has been constructed of brick and granite, and finished throughout in oak. The chemical building, erected in 1888, is constructed throughout of brick. The
dimensions of the building are 134.6 x 135 feet; the main body of the building is three stories, and the southwestern wing is two stories high. Another department building is in course of erection.
On April 3, 1888, Dr. G. Stanley Hall, then professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University, was invited to the presidency. The official letter conveying this invitation contained the following expression, showing the liberal spirit animating the trustees and their confidence in the man whom they wished to honor: They desire to impose on you no trammels; they have no friends for whom they wish to provide at the expense of the interests of the institution: no pet theories to press upon you in derogation of your judgment; no sectarian tests to apply; no guarantees to require, save such as are implied by your acceptance of this trust. Their single desire is to fit men for the highest duties of life, and to that end, that this institution, in whatever branches of sound learning it may find itself engaged, may be a leader and a light."
Having accepted this invitation, Dr. Hall was granted a year's leave of absence with full pay in order to inspect universities in Europe. During this year he visited every European country but Portugal, conferring with ministers of education, heads of universities, and leading scientific men. As a result of his investigations Dr. Hall, in his first annual report to the board of trustees, thus defines the work of Clark University:
"1. It must be of the highest and most advanced grade, with special prominence given to original research. This our country chiefly lacks and needs for both its material and educational welfare. This is in the current of all the best tendencies in the best lands, and is the ideal to-day of, I believe, about every scientific man, who is able and in earnest, throughout the world. For this our location offers the rarest opportunities and inducements yet possible in this country.
"2. We must not attempt at once to cover the entire field of human knowledge, but must elect a group of related departments of fundamental importance, and concentrate all our care to make these the best possible. Each science has become so vast and manifold that it is impossible to cultivate the frontier of all at a single university. This is more and more recognized abroad, and is still more true under our American system of private endowment than on the European plan, with a national treasury to draw from. If coming universities, instead of imitating, would supplement others, will elect each its group of studies, all the gain in economy and effectiveness which skilled labor has over unskilled will be secured in the field of highest education.
"3. For our group we chose at first five fundamental and related sciences. Work in science can be quickest organized. Great libraries and museums, and everything else that only age can bring, can be dispensed with at first, and a complete outfit of the best apparatus and of all needed books can be gathered in a short time. Again, this is a practical country, and its industries are sure to depend more and more on the progress of science. So far, we have utilized science with extraordinary ingenuity in our inventions, but have done comparatively little to create or advance it. We desire to make a patriotic endeavor to develop American discoverers as well as inventors. Finally, and above all, science, with its modern methods, has become an unsurpassed school of discipline, culture, and reverence.
4. We must seek the most talented and best-trained young men. We must not exploit them for the glory of the institution, work them in a machine, nor retard their advancement, but we must give them every needed opportunity and incentive. Their salaries must be among the very best in the country; yet we must not ask them to spend their best energies in teaching and earning tuition fees for the university, and must leave open all possibilities, should such problems as individual fees, a periodic year in Europe, etc., arise later. We must give to those who know how to value it such facilities as we are able, that they may work for science and for themselves, requiring in return only a limited amount of mutual instruction, special and advanced enough to aid rather than divert from research (and no one is so eager and so able to teach the few fit as a discoverer), and careful conformity to a few obvious regulations."
The five sciences selected by the university are mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, including anatomy and physiology, and psychology, including neurology, anthropology, criminology, and history of philosophy. In addition to these, modern languages are taught in a way to meet the practical needs of students in these departments. The policy of the institution is, first, to strengthen the departments already established, and then proceed to the establishment of thos which are scientifically most closely related to the established depart
According to the register for 1889-90, no clearly marked lines exist between instructors and students. Fellows and scholars who have attained some degree of mastery in a special line of work give brief special courses, which are often attended by professors. This is a stimulus to the student, and both tests and exhibits his powers in teaching. The total number of professors and students during the first session of the institution was 60, selected in part only from about 900 applicants for various positions. The number selected included graduates from forty-eight different universities and colleges. Only graduate students, or those of equivalent attainments, are admitted, unless in rare and special cases. The tuition fee is $200 per annum.
The University of the Northwest, Sioux City, Iowa, was opened for instruction in September, 1890. It is located at Morningside, a suburb of Sioux City, and is reached by the elevated railway. The institution is under the fostering care of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but is free from sectarianism, and will be conducted on broad Christian principles. The following departments have been established: Preparatory department: college of liberal arts; college of commerce; college of didactics; college of law; conservatory of music, and college of medicine. The college of medicine will be opened in September, 1891.
Lake Charles College, incorporated under the Louisiana statutes, June 22, 1887, is located at Lake Charles, in southwestern Louisiana. The college, preparatory and academic departments were opened for instruction, October 1, 1890. The institution is open to both sexes. The home life of the college is after the "cottage plan," and separate cottages are provided for young ladies and gentlemen, each accommodating about thirty students. Each cottage is under the care of a matron.
Parker College, Winnebago City, Minn., was founded by the Free Baptists, and was first opened for instruction in September, 1888. The college has $100,000 worth of property, $65,000 of which is productive endowment.
Cotner University, Lincoln, Nebr., was first opened for instruction in 1889, under the name of Christian University, which was changed to its present name on the 1st of June, 1890. This institution was established by the Christian Church of Nebraska, and is under the presidency of David R. Dungan, A. M. The courses already established are collegiate preparatory, normal preparatory, special Biblical, and medical. Other courses will be established when needed.
Black Hills College, Hot Springs, S. Dak., was founded by the Black Hills Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and opened for instruction on Thursday, September 11, 1890. The college building is constructed of gray sandstone. It is 54 feet wide, 74 feet long, and three stories high. The recitation halls are large, commodious, and well lighted. The campus is a gently rolled tract of land comprising 20 acres situated in the very center of the town.
University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.-One of the most generous benefactors to the cause of education is Mr. John D. Rockefeller, a prominent member of the Baptist church. When the Board of American Baptist Education Society, in May, 1889, decided to establish a well-equipped college in the city of Chicago, Mr. Rockefeller made a subscription of $600,000 towards the purpose, which sum was increased during the succeeding year by about $600,000 more in subscriptions, representing more than two thousand persons. Three months after the completion of this subscription, Mr. Rockefeller made an additional proffer of $1,000,000. The following are the formal terms in which these subscriptions were made:
MAY 15, 1889.
Rev. FRED. T. GATES, Corresponding Secretary
MY DEAR SIR: I will contribute $600,000 toward an endowment fund for a college to be established at Chicago, the income only of which may be used for current expenses, but not for land, buildings, or repairs, providing $400,000 more is pledged by good and responsible parties, satisfactory to the Board of the American Baptist Education Society and myself, on or before June 1, 1890, said $400,000, or as much of it as shall be required, to be used for the purpose of purchas ing land and erecting buildings, the remainder of the same to be added to the above $600,000 as endowment.
I will pay the same to the American Baptist Education Society in five years, beginning within ninety days after completion of the subscription as above and pay 5 per cent each ninety days thereafter until all is paid; providing not less than a proportionate amount is so paid by the other subscribers to the $400,000; otherwise this pledge to be null and void.
Yours, very truly,
JNO. D. ROCKEFELLER.