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IV.-ENDOWMENT FUNDS OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES.
Although the number of colleges and universities in the United States is con.stantly increasing, both by the foundation of new institutions and by the development of institutions from secondary schools to colleges, this increase in the number of institutions has not thus far affected to any perceptible degree the increase in the endowment funds of the older institutions of the country.
The gifts of the people to higher institutions have been large and numerous and seem to be keeping pace with the increase in the population and wealth of the country. During the past few years a number of rich bequests have been made to old institutions, and also in not a few cases for the foundation of new institutions. The most notable of the latter are Clark University, Worcester, Mass., University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., Catholic University, Washington, D. C., and Leland Stanford Jr. University, Palo Alto, Cal.
On account of the failure of a number of institutions to report to the Bureau from year to year a comparison between the total amounts of productive funds in 1880 and in 1890 would not show the true rate of increase in the funds during the last ten years.
The following tabular statement includes, first, only the institutions that reported on this subject in both 1880 and in 1890, and, second, all the institutions that reported in either year. From the first showing the average rate of increase may be inferred.
From this table it will be seen that, while the increase in the productive funds of the 191 institutions distributed over the entire country is 77.3 per cent, the largest increase has taken place in the forty-two institutions of the North Atlantic Division, which reported, in 1889-90, more than 56 per cent of the total amount included in the above table. The poorest showing is made by the institutions of the Western Division, but this can be accounted for in a measure by the small number of institutions reporting in 1880 and the number of new institutions that have been founded during the decade.
The most remarkable increase recorded is in the State of Louisiana. This is due to the establishment of the Tulane University of Louisiana, which is the successor of the old University of Louisiana. It has at present an endowment fund of more than $1,000,000.
The total number of colleges and universities reporting to the Bureau in 1889-90 was 415, and of this number but 315 answered the question relating to productive funds. Among those not answering this inquiry were Clark University, Princeton, Rutgers, Dartmouth, and Haverford, all of which have large endowment funds, and would have materially increased the total amount for 1889-90. The figures here given show an increase of 71.6 per cent, which would be considerably larger if all the institutions had reported.
V.-GROUNDS, BUILDINGS, AND APPARATUS.
In considering the resources of institutions for higher education the material equipment, such as grounds, buildings, and apparatus, must not be lost sight of. The increase in the value of appliances is due, in great measure, to the increased attention given to the sciences and the consequent erection and equipment of laboratories for experiments and research. The substantial and ornamental style of architecture which has been adopted in the erection of college buildings has increased the cost of buildings while adding considerably to the general appearance of the college campus. In the following table an attempt is made to present in a convenient form the value of grounds, buildings, and apparatus of colleges and universities for the years 1879-80 and 1889-90. In order to show the rate of increase the table is divided into two parts, the first part containing statistics of such institutions only as reported in both 1879 80 and 1889-90, while the second part includes all the institutions that reported in either of the years under consideration.
The establishment and management of State universities form an interesting subject for study and investigation. As early as 1787 the General Government passed an ordinance setting aside two townships of land in what is now Ohio for the support of a "university," and this precedent has been followed in the case of nearly every State since admitted into the Union. The funds derived from the sale of these lands have in almost every instance been devoted to the support of State universities, and if properly managed would have yielded handsome en
dowment funds for such institutions. But in many cases the persons to whom the management of the lands was intrusted were in too great a hurry to dispose of them, often sacrificing them at a ridiculously low figure; in some cases they served as a means of booming" a particular State, the lands being advertised and sold at very low rates, thus inducing settlers to locate; in a few cases, where the States disposed of the land and assumed the indebtedness therefor, the funds have been mismanaged and sometimes very much impaired.
The mismanagement of these lands and the funds derived therefrom has served one good purpose. The newer States, profiting by the experience of the older, are disposing of their lands advantageously, and by the time all of them are sold their universities will have endowments far exceeding those of the older institutions.
In a number of cases the funds derived from the sale of university lands have been considerably augmented by the land grant of 1862, which was given by some of the States to the State universities, while in other cases the fund was used for the establishment of separate and distinct institutions.
The State universities have also as a rule been generously treated by the legislatures of their respective States in the matter of annual and special appropriations. Very recently the legislature of Missouri granted to the State University at Columbia the direct tax refunded to the State by the General Government, amounting to $647,900. This amount is to be added to the permanent endowment fund, increasing the latter to $1,180,946.
The statistics of State universities for the year under consideration are given in the table on the following page.
Colleges of arts and science.
TABLE 4.-Statistics of State universities for the year 1889–90.
23 182 3
38 380 21
Number of students.
Number of students in graduate department. Number of schools. Number of instruc
dents. Number of stutors.
288 9 199
567 6,043 308
33 300 67
Total number of instructors.
1 16 12
38 326 67
459 88 33
Total number of students.
Number of endowed professorships.
Number of State scholarships. Number of other scholarships.
12 13 14
45 343 3,758 964 (12,846
12,000 41, 330
0 8, 140
307 0 0
483 4 0 17
Number of volumes in library.
206,000 0 74,599 1,200,000 0 25,000 1,350,000 5 13,000 350,000
287 0 0 0
1 0 11
Value of grounds, buildings, and apparatus.
2, 100 7,000
7 363 151 494,838
15, 146, 588 10, 411, 964 587, 453 259, 661 1,106,684 2,176,250 43, 950
112, 570 202,987 20,000