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Freshman-Latin grammar (Allen and Greenough),
Latin exercises (Jones), Latin reader, English
grammar (Whitney), rhetoric (Hill). Sophomore-
Cæsar, Virgil, Greek grammar (Goodwin), Greek
lessons (Leighton), Anabasis, Mueller's grammar.
and reader, Anglo-Saxon grammar (March), study
of words (Trench), rhetoric (Hill's Science),
French grammar and reader (Fasquelle), Contes
Choisis, (Télémaque). Junior-Cicero, Latin
prose composition (Allen), Horace, Xenophon,
Demosthenes, Greek prose composition (Boise),
Morris's Accidence, French and German plays and
dramas, American poems (Scudder). Senior-
Livy, Tacitus, Latin prose composition, Thucyd-
ides, Plato, Eschylus, Greek prose composition,
Hale's English poems, Shakespeare's plays.
Freshman-English grammar, English composi-
tion, beginners' Latin book (Collar & Daniell),
fables, Cæsar. Sophomore-Rhetoric, English
prose and prose writers (Hunt), Cæsar, Virgil,
French grammar (Keetel) and prose readings or
German grammar (Otto), Grimm's Märchen
and English into German.. Junior-History of
English language and literature (Backus's Shaw's
Manual, Lounsbury), Horace, Cicero, French
grammar, composition, and readings or German
grammar, composition, Hermann und Dorothea,
and Wilhelm Tell. Senior-Critical study of Shak-
speare (Hudson & Rolfe) and other principal poets,
philology of the English tongue (Earle), lectures
on the masters of English style and the master-
pieces in English literature, Livy, Tacitus. Latin
grammar and written exercises extend through
the course.

try and trigonom-
etry (Wells), as-
tronomy, high-
school arithmetic

First year-Arith- First year-Physi-
metic, algebra. ology, botany.
Second year-Al- Third year-Zo-
gebra. Third ology, physics.
year-Plane ge-
Fourth year-
ometry, solid ge Chemistry, geol-
ometry. Fourth ogy.
year- Trigonom-
etry, astronomy.
metic (Robinson),
algebra (Robin-
son), plane geom-
etry (Robinson).
gebra, solid geom-
etry, trigonome-
try (Robinson).
omy (Norton),
conic sections
and analytical
geometry (Robin-
son). Senior-
Calculus (Olney).
school arithmetic
(Wentworth), al-'
gebra (Robinson's
gebra (Robinson's
University), ele-
mentary geome-
try (Hill). Junior
-Plane geometry,
solid geometry,
and conic sections
nometry (Loomis),
surveying (Loom-
is),navigation and
spherical trigo--
nometry, astron-
omy (Hooker).

any (Gray). Jun-
ical philosophy
(Kimball and
Snell's Olmstead),
chemistry (Shep-
herd), physics
(Peck's Ganot).
Senior Geology
of Tennessee,
geology (Dana
and Le Conte),
electricity and
magnetism (Des-
Freshman - Physi-
ology and hygiene
(Hitchcock). Soph-
ogy (Nicholson),
physics (Avery).
Junior- Chemis-
try (Steele), bot-
any (Wood). Sen-
ior-Geology (Le

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TABLE 3.-Courses of study leading to the degree of A. B. in 15 colleges and seminaries for women-Continued.

History and geography.

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National science.

Freshman-Botany Junior-General (Steele). Sopho- history. Seniormore-Zoology General history, (Steele), geology physical geogra (Steele). Junior- phy (Maury). Physics and chemistry (Steele).

First year-Physi

ology. Second
year Natural
philosophy, zool-
ogy. Third year
-Chemistry, bot-
any, Fourth year
-Geology, miner-

Freshman-Zoölogy, botany, hygiene. Sophomore- Physiol ogy, chemistry. Junior-Analytical chemistry or mineralogy, physics. SeniorGeology.

First year-United States history, physical geogra phy. Second year-History of England, Roman history, Grecian history.

Freshman - Bible. Sophomore-History of England, Bible. JuniorBible. SeniorBible, history of the United States, or history of civilization or library work, history of art or history of philosophy.

Philosophy and civil government.

Senior-Evidences of Christianity (McIlvaine), psychology (Baker).

Third year-Mental
Fourth year-
Moral philosophy,
logic, philosophy
of history, evi-
dences of Chris-
tianity, United
States Constitu-
tion, political econ-

Sophomore-Logic (Jevons). SeniorPolitical economy, psychology, moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity.




I-Brief Discussion of the System of Higher Education: Number of Institutions; Tendency of
Institutions to Adopt Pretentious Names; Increase in Number of Institutions Due to Vari-
ous Causes; Character of Universities and Colleges; System and Methods of Instruction;
Union College, N. Y., and Scientific Education: Degrees; Value of the Ph. D. Degree.
II.-Summary of Statistics; Coeducation; Teaching Force; Students; Location of Institutions;
Distribution of College Students; Income; Income from Productive Funds; Benefactions;
State or Municipal Appropriations.

III.-Distribution of Students in Degree Courses from 1856-57 to 1939-9).
IV-Endowment Funds of Colleges and Universities.

V-Grounds, Buildings, and Apparatus.

VI.-State Universities.

VII.-Denominational Institutions.

VIII-Organization of a Number of Leading Universities.

IX.-Reorganization of Columbia College.

X.-Brief Description of New Institutions. XI-New Buildings during 1889–90.


Number of institutions.-The number of colleges and universities from which this Office has received reports for the year under consideration is 415. The number is constantly increasing; a condition not to be regretted, provided the institutions do work for which they are prepared and equipped and not attempt to give courses of study for the successful prosecution of which they lack both the necessary appliances and finances. As is well known higher education is not and can not be self-supporting and needs considerable aid from outside sources, either in the form of endowment funds or annual gifts or appropriations for current expenses. Notwithstanding this fact it often happens that no sooner is an institution established whose real work ought to be secondary instruction than it organizes a college of commerce, so-called normal, collegiate and graduate departments, and calls itself a university, even if it has no endowment and relies almost entirely for support upon the tuition fees received from the students.

It is frequently the case that some of the smaller institutions of the country advertise graduate or university courses of study, when, in fact, they often have not a sufficient number of professors and instructors to carry on properly the undergraduate work of the institution. In order to make a success of graduate work-work which renders necessary considerable independent research-it is desirable, if not absolutely necessary, for the student to have, at his or her command, large and well-equipped laboratories and libraries such as are far beyond the means of our smaller institutions. Such work ought, therefore, to be left to those institutions that are well endowed enough to provide the appliances which are indispensable for the successful prosecution of the work. The discussions of the relations of institutions to scholastic work and requirements have been intensified and extended by the action of the Harvard faculty in its attempt to shorten the time necessary for the acquisition of the A. B. degree.'

Increase in number of institutions.-The age of the institutions for higher education in the United States is inconsiderable when compared with that of European institutions. The first of our colleges, Harvard, was founded in 1638 under circumstances which are familiar. From that time on new institutions were gradually established until now the number exceeds four hundred. This large increase in the number of institutions is due to the munificence of wealthy people who wish to promote the advancement of knowledge, to religious zeal, and to the formation and settlement of new States. The large majority of the

1 For the discussion of this subject, see p. 799.

people settling the new States are people of moderate means, who wish to give their children a good education, but who are frequently not able to spend the sum necessary to send them to an institution at a considerable distance from their homes. The desire for an institution of their own naturally follows, and the attempt to establish one succeeds in the larger number of cases. In most of these attempts the object is accomplished through the aid of some one of the religious denominations by whom the controlling power is retained. The rivalry existing among the several churches frequently causes the establishment of weak colleges in places where more good would be effected by devoting the money thus used to the enlargement and better equipment of some existing institution.

General character of colleges and universities.-Speaking of the general character of the universities and colleges of the United States the Hon. James Bryce, M. P., in The American Commonwealth, says: "Out of this enormous total of degree-granting bodies very few answer to the modern conception of a university. If we define a university as a place where teaching of a high order, teaching which puts a man abreast of the fullest and most exact knowledge of the time, is given in a range of subjects covering all the great departments of intellectual life, not more than twelve and possibly only eight or nine of the American institutions would fall within the definition. Of these nearly all are to be found in the Atlantic States. Next below them come some thirty or forty foundations which are scarcely entitled to the name of universities, some because their range of instruction is still limited to the traditional literary and scientific course, such as it stood thirty years ago; others because, while professing to teach a great variety of subjects, they teach them in an imperfect way, having neither a sufficiently large staff of highly trained professors, nor an adequate provision of laboratories, libraries, and other external appliances. The older New England colleges are good types of the former group. Their instruction is sound and thorough as far as it goes, well calculated to fit a man for the profession of law or divinity; but it omits many branches of learning and science which have grown to importance within the last fifty years. There are also some Western colleges which deserve to be placed in the same category. Most of the Western State universities belong to the other group of this second class, that of institutions which aim at covering more ground than they are as yet able to cover. They have an ambitious programme, but neither the state of preparation of their students nor the strength of the teaching staff enables them to do justice to the promise which the programme holds out. They are true universities rather in aspiration than in fact.

"Below these, again, there is a third and much larger class of colleges, let us say three hundred,' which are for most intents and purposes schools. They differ from the gymnasia of Germany, the lycées of France, the grammar schools of England and high schools of Scotland, not only in the fact that they give degrees to those who have satisfactorily passed through their prescribed course or courses, but in permitting greater personal freedom to the students than boys would be allowed in those countries. They are universities or colleges as respects some of their arrangements, but schools in respect of the educational results attained. These three hundred may be further divided into two subclasses, distinguished from one another partly by their revenues, partly by the character of the population they serve, partly by the personal gifts of the president, as the head of the establishment is usually called, and of the teachers. Some seventy or eighty, though comparatively small, are strong by the zeal and capacity of their teachers, and while not attempting to teach everything, teach the subjects which they do undertake with increasing thoroughness. The remainder would do better to renounce the privilege of granting degrees, and be content to do school work according to school methods."

System and methods of instruction.-About thirty or thirty-five years ago nearly all the colleges and universities of the country prescribed a regular four years' course of study. The course consisted of classics and mathematics followed by the elements of mental and moral philosophy, and at its completion the degree of A. B. was conferred upon the students. The system of a prescribed inflexible course has been abolished by the greater part of all the institutions, and considerable latitude in the matter of choice of studies is allowed. The adoption of the elective system, as it is called, was due to the demand for instruction in scientific studies, in addition to those of the old time curriculum.

Provision for a choice of studies has been made in two different ways, viz, by offering to students the choice of separate and distinct courses of study, and by

1The figures here used were taken from the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1885-86, when the total number of colleges and universities was 345.

offering electives in a course of study. This latter plan was in vogue to a limited extent in Harvard University as early as 1843-44. The following extract from the catalogue for that year will show the arrangement at that time: "The laws of the University allow, after the freshman year, to the parents or guardians of undergraduates a selection in respect of certain specified studies. This selection must be made known to the faculty on or before the first day of June, in each year. If no notice of such selection be received, in respect of any student, the faculty themselves proceed to assign to such student the elective studies they deem it best for him to pursue. No student is allowed to select or have assigned to him more elective studies than will occupy, with the required studies in recitation and lectures, every week twenty-one hours." At the date specified all the work of the freshman year and a comparatively large part of the work of the sophomore, junior, and senior years remained as required studies. The amount of "required" work has been gradually reduced, and the "elective" increased, until at the present time the only required studies in Harvard are in the freshman year: Rhetoric and composition (three times a week), chemistry (lectures, Thursday, first half year), and German or French for those who do not present both of these languages for admission (three times a week); in the sophomore and junior years the prescribed work consists of themes and forensics; in the senior year no studies are prescribed.

The action of Harvard in offering electives to students was naturally followed by other institutions. These either offered similar privileges or formed new courses of study from which the student could take his choice. It may be well to note the fact that down to the present time none of the institutions allow as much freedom in this respect as Harvard. In many instances election is not allowed until the beginning of the junior year, while in some cases, especially in those institutions that are not well endowed, the prescribed courses are still adhered to. This action is very often a matter not of choice but of necessity, for an elective system can be maintained only by institutions where the teaching staff is able to do justice to a wide range of subjects.

Union College, N. Y., and scientific education.-Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., claims to have been the first college to provide a scientific course of study. The essential features of this system, as originated by Dr. Nott and now so generally adopted, was the substitution of the modern languages and an increased amount of mathematical and physical science in place of the Greek and Roman classics. A scientific course of study was offered by Union in 1833. This course, in 1838-39, was as follows:

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The studies of the freshman year, as given above, are the same as were pursued at that time by students in the classical course. It will be seen that in the above course of study neither ancient nor modern languages were pursued after the freshman year. This was changed shortly afterwards, for, in the catalogue

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