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In answer to the first objection that "temperance is a moral, not a scientific question," etc., let us inquire:
(1) Is it not true that a moral question is one that considers what is right or wrong in action on the part of beings capable of choice?
(2) Are there not certain facts which are the reasons for an action or course of action being right or wrong?
(3) If these facts, the reasons for the right or wrong, are duly arranged in the case of each obligation, do they not form the science of that special obligation? Webster says that "Science is knowledge duly arranged."
(4) Can a person be taught the principles of morality in any case, or to intelligently choose the right without being taught the facts which show why one course or set of acts is right and another wrong; are not these facts the science of the case?
To illustrate: Moral obligations may be classified under three general heads: (1) Duties to our Maker.
(2) Duties to our fellowmen.
(3) Duties to ourselves.
The facts that are the reasons for our duties to our Creator are set forth in the science of theology.
Those in the case of our duties to our fellowmen are classed as the science of sociology.
The facts that prove our moral obligations to ourselves in the case of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics are very properly termed the science of temperance; and here, as in the case of other duties, no person can fully comprehend the extent or scope of that obligation without knowing the facts.
The answer to the question, "What is the nature and effects of these substances," is the facts in this case, on which the whole temperance question
There is no such thing as moral question without a basis of fact that is the science of the question. These are not the days of dogmatic morality. Modern morality teaches the reasons for the right, shows why, and thus "strengthens the moral nature."
The objector says, "Strengthen the will to resist temptation." How do we strengthen the will? The will is the faculty in us that acts on choice, and our choices are more or less influenced by our knowledge or ignorance of the facts in the case. How would you strengthen the will of a boy against the temptation to row across the Niagara River a little way above the falls-by telling him he must not, it would be wrong, or by explaining to his reason the perils that inhere in that fatal current? How would I strengthen a boy's will against intemperance? I would try to give him intelligent reasons on which his will should act. Just as I would teach him the character of the Niagara Rapids I would teach him the nature of those other, the alcoholic rapids, that lead to a worse, a more hopeless plunge into utter darkness. While I would never exaggerate, I would search for the truth on this topic as for "hid treasures," and then teach it, abating not "one jot or tittle," leaving the consequences with Him who said "I am the Truth." He has so made the human mind that it is moved by truth that warns as well as promises. I would teach the boy before appetite is formed the dangerous and deceptive character of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, especially that proven fact that a little alcohol in any liquor has the power to create an imperious, uncontrollable, and destructive appetite for more, and therefore its use in any quantity is never safe. I would show him that there is a scientific connection between the first glass and the drunkards' fate. I would not preach at the boy nor weary him with repeated homily, but I would lead him, through the study of the laws of his own being, to see and understand for himself that the inestimable blessing and happiness of a strong, healthy, useful life are the result of obedience to laws that are written in our living tissues, and that the penalty of disobedience inheres in the law itself. I would strip the wine cup, and the whole brood of strong drinks, the pipe, the cigar, and the cigarette of the glamor with which ignorance and tradition have decked them, and help the boy to see them and their consequences as labeled by modern science-narcotic poisons.
In answer to the second objection, that teaching the evil character of alcoholic drinks will make the pupil want to try them for himself, we reply: If we tell the boy the perils of the rapids in the smooth, safe-looking stream above the falls, will he immediately wish to embark thereon? Is it a rule that teaching the consequences of evil is only furnishing a motive for immediately plunging into the evil? If so, there must be something radically wrong in the most authoritative of all teaching, for all through the Bible the blessings of right doing are coupled
with vivid descriptions of the consequences of following the wrong. Gerizim and Ebal stand together. I am sure the great body of teachers in our land will agree that it will be safe for us to follow in method the great Teacher. He made the human mind, and He knows the laws of its development far better than we ever can, after all our study.
We teach the need of pure air and good ventilation by showing its importance and relation to health, and how to get it, and the consequences of its absence. If you teach the need of oxygen by showing the consequences of breathing vitiated air, are you thereby teaching imperfect ventilation? Such a claim would be absurd. And yet a recent writer refers to teaching the evil nature and effects of alcoholic drinks, etc., as "teaching intemperance." Then the vivid descriptions of intemperance in the "woes" the Bible pronounces upon drunkards is "teaching intemperance." These objectors certainly need a new and expunged version of the greatest of all manuals of instruction.
Experience must, after all, decide, and happily we are not without precedent. Wherever in the thirty-five States of our country the spirit and letter of the law requiring this study are obeyed, and well-graded text-books on this topic containing the truths the law requires taught are used, with the same wise and thorough methods of teaching as in the case of other branches, pupils thus taught have not consequently rushed headlong to the saloons. On the contrary, an intelligent aversion to strong drinks and other narcotics is manifest; fewer cigarettes are smoked, and pupils are more careful to obey other laws of hygiene.
Giving an occasional temperance exhortation in the schoolroom may take less time and study on the part of the teacher, but, compared with the results of carefully prepared lessons that guide the pupil in finding and intelligently understanding the reasons for total abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, and other narcotics, and for obedience to other laws of health, the mere exhortation or socalled moral homily falls immeasurably short.
The prophet said, "My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge," not for lack of exhortation. To a right-minded child or youth the most impressive of all moral lessons is the one that convinces his understanding and is thereby lodged in his reason. That all children and youth are not right-minded towards alcohol and tobacco is evidence of the deep wound these substances have made upon our humanity through inheritance upon children and "children's children." That some of these, heavily weighted with the sins of the fathers.will go wrong anyway, does not prove that faithful instruction is useless in all other
To the third objection we would put the question: Shall we make no attempt to teach the children better because the fathers drink and smoke? Because some parents murder the Queen's English, we do not therefore think it useless or disrespectful to their parents to teach the children correct speech, and as a consequence the generations rise in the scale of better utterance.
The difficulties are appreciated of teachers who were commanded to teach this topic and given nothing to do it with but the imperfect, badly graded books first put upon the market. But a better day has dawned. Well-graded manuals of instruction, that contain these truths adapted to all classes, are published in great abundance and variety.
Truth is the lever of Archimedes that moves the world. The truth concerning the evil nature of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics is the lever destined to overthrow their use. To the teacher has come the opportunity to scatter that truth. Opportunity is God's command.
VIII. QUESTIONS ON PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE, AND THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS AND OTHER NAR-. COTICS.
Published by the scientific temperance department of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union for use in the preparation of essays, examination papers, etc., for the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.
FOR PRIMARY GRADES.
In this subject, as in other branches which extend through several years of school life, a few of the simple elements of each topic are taught, where the subject is properly pursued, in the lowest grade, to be reviewed, with additions from year to year, until an advanced treatment of the whole subject is completed in the high school.
The work of the first year, therefore, properly consists of oral lessons on parts of the body, sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, cleanliness, and very simple les
sons on the harm that comes from the use of tobacco and the common alcoholic drinks.
Second year pupils review these topics with additional matter and add lessons on care of the bones, the hygiene of eating and drinking, breathing, etc. The special points brought out in these lessons will be written out by the children at the close of the lesson, and from these written exercises selections may be made and sent on to the exhibit with photographs of class, etc., as above.
Third year pupils, reviewing the ground already covered, learn more on each topic, and add a few simple facts about muscles, nerves, the organs of digestion, circulation, respiration, etc.; the best of their written exercises may also be selected.
In response to request, the questions given below are suggested by the department of scientific temperance instruction.
QUESTIONS ON THE SENSES FOR FOURTH YEAR PUPILS.
[NOTE.-Other topics studied during the fourth year are, food, alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, digestion, circulation, respiration, the skin, bones, muscles, and nervous system, the hygiene of each being chiefly developed. As it is manifestly impossible in the time allowed for preparing papers for this exhibit to cover all the topics studied in any one grade, a selection has been made of one or more for each grade, with questions covering salient points.]
2. How may the eyes be injured? 3. What is a good thing to do when specks get in your eye? 4. What is the outside part of the ear for? 5. Where is the hearing part? 6. How does the brain know about sounds?
1. Why can you feel better with the ends of your fingers than with the back of your hand?
1. What tells your brain that sugar is sweet when it is dissolving in your mouth?
1. How does the brain find out about odors? 2. Upon what does the right action of all our senses depend?
1. What do alcohol and tobacco do to the senses, as of sight, taste, etc.? 2. How will our comfort and pleasure be affected if we blunt or injure our senses with alcoholic drinks or tobacco?
QUESTIONS ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS, FOR FIFTH YEAR PUPILS.
[NOTE. According to the plan of grading this study, now in most successful operation, only a part of the topics included in the whole subject, as food, alcoholic drinks, digestion, circulation, and respiration, are taken up during the fifth year; the remainder, bones, muscles, skin, nervous system, and senses, being left for the sixth year. But the work, though more exhaustive than that in the fourth year, still leaves much that the pupil is not yet prepared to comprehend. The same plan is again pursued for the seventh and eighth years, the seventh year taking up the same topics as the fifth, i. e., food, alcoholic drinks, digestion, circulation, respiration, but with a more thorough and comprehensive treatment; the eighth taking the same topics as the sixth-year grades, i. e., bones, muscles, skin, nervous system, and senses, with more comprehensive treatment. The topics covered by the questions are selected in accordance with this plan.]
1. When the juice pressed from apples, grapes, or other fruits is left in a moderately warm air what change soon takes place in it? 2. What causes this change? 3. Where are the ferments before the apples are ground? 4. How do they get into the juice and what do they do there? 5. What is alcohol and how does it differ from water? 6. What is vinous fermentation? 7. What does fermentation always change? 8. How is this law illustrated when cider changes to vinegar? 9. Why are wine, cider, and beer dangerous drinks? 10. Show how the law of fermentation applies to beer-making. 11. How does beer-drinking give a false appearance of health? 12. How do the results of fermentation differ in bread-making from those in beer-making? 13. Why is there no alcohol in well-baked bread? 14. What is meant by distilled liquors? 15. Mention some of the more common distilled liquors and tell why they are destructive to health and character. 16. What is the alcoholic appetite and how does it differ from a natural appetite? 17. Why should not alcoholic liquors be used as a flavoring for food?
QUESTIONS ON DIGESTION AND MUSCLES FOR SIXTH-YEAR PUPILS. [The teacher may choose either subject to be written upon if both are considered too long.] DIGESTION.
1. Explain how food is made ready to mix with the blood and what is meant by digestion. 2. Describe the organs of digestion and tell what they do. 3.
Tell what you can about the liver. 4. What can you tell of Alexis St. Martin? 5. Tell how the nutritious part of food is taken into the blood. 6. What general rules should guide us as to what we should eat? 7. Explain in a general way how we should eat, how much, and the importance of proper cooking. 8. What care should be taken of the teeth? 9. What is the effect of alcohol on digestion and how does it affect the liver? 10. What is the effect of tobacco on digestion?
1. What are muscles, voluntary and involuntary, and what purpose do they serve? 2. What are tendons and their uses? 3. Why do we need exercise? 4. What are the advantages of walking as an exercise? Of light gymnastics? 5. What is the effect of alcoholic drinks on the muscles? 6. What is the effect of alcoholic drinks on the strength? 7. How do alcoholic drinks injure a workman's power of doing fine work? 8. What can you say of the effect of tobacco on the muscles?
QUESTIONS ON THE CIRCULATION AND RESPIRATION FOR PUPILS OF THE SEVENTH-YEAR GRADE.
[The teacher may choose between these subjects the one to be written upon if both are too long.]
I. 1. Describe the blood and its uses. 2. Describe the different kinds of blood vessels, their uses, and the pulse. 3. Describe the heart. 4. Starting in the aorta follow the blood in its course through the blood vessels until it has returned to the heart. 5. Follow the course of the blood through the heart and describe the action of each part. 6. How is the action of the heart regulated? 7. How does the heart gets its rest? 8. What are some of the avoidable causes of palpitation and other heart troubles? 9. What is a smoker's heart?
II. 1. How is the circulation regulated? 2. What effect has bodily inactivity on the circulation? 3. Why is outdoor exercise necessary to healthful circulation?
III. 1. What effect have alcoholic drinks on the blood? On the beating of the heart? 2. How does alcohol deprive the heart of a portion of its rest? 3. What effect may alcohol have on the structure of the heart? 4. Explain the cause of the flushed face that follows taking alcoholic liquors? 5. What other parts besides the face are also flushed? 6. How does alcohol affect the blood vessels? 7. How do alcoholic drinks interfere with the proper distribution of the blood?
I. 1. What bodily need is more pressing than the need of food and drink? 2. How does expired air compare with inspired air in its composition?
II. 1. Describe the organs of respiration and their use. 2. What reason for breathing through the nose rather than through the mouth? 3. Trace the bloo l-vessels from the heart to the lungs and back.
III. 1. What effect has purity of air on the blood? 2. What is the work of the corpuscles?
IV. 1. What makes air impure, and how does nature preserve the purity of the outdoor air? 2. Why is it so difficult to secure pure air for breathing indoors? 3. What is a good test of the character of the air of a room? 4. Tell what you know about ventilation and how it may be secured.
V. I. What effect have alcoholic liquors on the blood vessels of the lungs ? 2. How does alcohol affect the substance of the lungs? 3. What disease of the lungs is caused by alcohol? 4. What effect has tobacco on the throat and nose?
QUESTIONS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FOR EIGHTH-YEAR PUPILS OR FIRST YEAR BELOW THE HIGH SCHOOL.
I. 1. Describe the nerves and the brain and tell what you can of their various uses. 2. Where is the spinal cord situated, what is its appearance, and over what movements does it preside? 3. Why are sensation and motion lost below an injury of the spinal cord? 4. What is the condition of a person whose nerves are incapable of action? 5. What are some of the avoidable causes of disease of the nervous system? 6. How much time should be spent in sleep? 7. Name two safeguards of the nervous system. 8. What is the effect of excessive excitement?
II. 1. How does alcohol reach and affect the nerve centers? 2. Show the fallacy of the supposition that alcoholic drinks aid brain work. 3. Show how alcohol through its action on the brain affects the judgment, the will, the character. 4. What change may alcohol make in the structure of the brain? 5. What inheritance may a drinking or tobacco-using parent leave his children? 6. What effect is tobacco likely to have on the brain and nerves of a boy who uses it?
QUESTIONS SUGGESTED FOR THE USE OF HIGH-SCHOOL PUPILS IN PREPARING EXAMINATION PAPERS ON THE SUBJECT OF PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE, INCLUDING THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS AND OTHER NARCOTICS, FOR THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.
I. 1. Describe the cell as found in the human body; a tissue; an organ; a system.
II. 1. Why do we need food? Discuss kinds, sources, and proper preparation of food.
III. 1. What are healthful drinks? 2. What change takes place when the juices of fruits are pressed out and allowed to ferment? Tell what you know about the causes of this change. 3. What is present in the liquid after it has fermented that was not there before and how did it get there? 4. Show the fallacy of supposing that beer, wine, and cider are good because made from healthful grains, grapes, or apples. 5. What characteristic of alcohol makes any liquid containing it a dangerous drink? 6. Describe the alcoholic appetite and its causes.
IV. 1. Describe the organs of digestion, and the office of each, and tell what harm alcoholic liquors and tobacco do the same.
V. 1. Describe the blood, the organs of circulation, and the function of each. 2. The need of pure blood, showing causes that make the blood impure. 3. What is the immediate effect of alcohol upon the blood vessels and why? 4. Upon the heart and why? 5. What changes may be brought about in the blood vessels and the heart by continued use of alcohol and why? 6. How may tobacco affect the heart?
VI. 1. What are the organs of respiration and what are their functions? 2. Tell why pure air is a necessity and how to get it. 3. How are the organs of respiration and the voice injured by alcoholic drinks or tobacco ?
VII. 1. What are muscles and their functions? 2. How is strength of muscles affected by lack of exercise, tight clothing, or improper food? 3. Explain the eflect of alcohol upon muscular strength and precision.
VIII. 1. Describe the brain, nerves, and spinal cord, and the uses of each. 2. How is brain power developed? 3. How are habits formed? 4. What is the relation of habit to character and success in life?
IX. 1. What causes the flushing of the face which usually follows taking an aleoholic drink?. 2. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the higher faculties of the brain? 3. What changes in the brain may the use of alcohol produce? 4. What are the results upon character? 5. What institutions supported by tax on the general public are made necessary largely by the effect of alcohol on the brain? 6. What diseases of the nervous system and what hereditary consequences are due to the use of alcohol? 7. How does tobacco affect the brain and nerves? What is its effect upon brain power and scholarship? 8. What of opium on the nerves and brain?