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it down, paralyzing it to-day, then mending it, pulling it down, and to-morrow mending it, paralyzing it a little more the next day, and mending it again, changes the constitution of that nerve matter so that it gets into what we call a diseased condition. And there is a second reason for this terrible thirst that comes over a man. Such thirst that nothing, as he says, in heaven or earth will stop him in getting that liquor; and why? Because of the changed condition of that nerve matter, and it looks as if there was no remedy for him. Surely it is a terrible condition for a man to reach.
Now, without going further, I think I have made the points that I desire: That in teaching these points we should lay the foundation on simple experiments (with substances which are the same or similar to those of the human body), performed by the pupils themselves. That, I say, should be the foundation. Then we should apply these facts and explain the action on the human body. This may be supplemented by reading, not from one book, but from many books, of the effects, which can not be shown by simple experiments, but which are the result of difficult scientific experiments and of medical experience.
Now let me leave these thoughts with you: Teach very carefully out of a full knowledge of the subject; discriminatingly, not with exaggeration, but for the purpose of finding the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Teach scientifically, according to the principles of the very best science, basing the work upon experiments in the hands of the pupils. Teach impressively. As I said at first a person may know all about these facts that I have presented and yet go right on doing just the same thing as before. The lessons should be taught in such a way by the teacher as to bring conviction and decision to the minds of each one of the children. Any teacher that fails to reach that point has failed in moving the wills of the children. Teach for the sake of developing right habits and good character.
III. THE LEGISLATION EFFECTED.
The following table shows what States have enacted compulsory temperance education laws and gives the principal features of the different laws:
Table showing the States having temperance education laws; also the date of enactment and the chief requirements of the different laws, as compiled by Mary ÏÏ. Hunt.
Explanation of marks.
x The cross signifies that scientific temperance is a mandatory study in public schools. (Column 3.)
The star signifies a penalty attached to the enforcing clause of this statute in the State or Territory to which it is amxed. (Column 4.)
+ The dagger signifies that the study is not only mandatory, but is required of all pupils in all schools. (Column 5.)
The double dagger signifies that the study is required of all pupils in all schools and is to be pursued with text-books in the hands of pupils able to read. (Column 6.)
The parallel indicates that the study is to be taught in the same manner and as thoroughly as other required branches. (Column 7.)
The section mark indicates that text-books on this topic used in primary and intermediate schools must give one-fourth their space to temperance matter and those used in high schools not less than 20 pages. (Column 8.)
The paragraph indicates that no teacher who has not passed a satisfactory examination in this subject is granted a certificate or authorized to teach. (Column 9.) The States in italics have no temperance education law.
North Atlantic Division:
South Atlantic Division:
District of Columbia.
a Amended 1886.
bUnder United States law. Idaho and Wyoming have since continued the same provisions in their State codes.
a Date of original law; a more stringent one enacted in 1891.
b Amended 1886.
e Under United States law. Idaho and Wyoming have since contained the same provisions in their State codes.
JV. THE ENFORCEMENT OF TEMPERANCE EDUCATION LAWS.-
The Alabama law of 1885 required that "instruction shall be given all pupils in all schools and colleges, supported in whole or in part by public money or under State control, in physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics upon the human system." In 1889, out of 261,667 pupils, 19,211 are reported as studying "physiology and hygiene."
In 1891 a law more rigid in its requirements was enacted.
[From Report of State Superintendent Ira G. Hoitt, 1890.]
Teaching desultory and results inappreciable. The provision in our law requiring scientific temperance instruction to be given in all grades was adopted by the legislature of 1887.
Up to the present time the teaching has been desultory and the results inappreciable. Some teachers are earnest and enthusiastic on the subject, many take hold of it in a cold, perfunctory way, and many, I fear, neglect it altogether. Some teachers, when the law was passed, found themselves unprepared to do anything in that line, and, not having the fear of an examination before them, failed to make any adequate preparation. Some of the county boards very properly required an examination of their teachers in this subject and entomology before issuing renewals of certificates. The course of study suggested by the State board of education supplies the data for some years only.
I would suggest that county superintendents give this subject a more prominent place at their institutes and in their teachers' examinations and that pupils be examined thoroughly in the work prescribed for each grade; also, that by legislative enactment scientific temperance be added to the branches in which applicants for teachers' certificates must be examined, and that the words "intemperate habits" be added to the clause bearing upon the revocation or suspension of certificates.
If this were done the almost universal desire which I have observed among our superintendents and teachers to uphold the law would produce beneficial results in this direction.
Methods of instruction.-Eugene De Bum, superintendent of San Diego schools: In connection with the work in physiology, alcoholic drinks and narcotics are treated of as fully in each grade as the comprehension of the pupils will permit. The teacher talks with the class of the manufacture of alcohol, its uses in the arts, and the beverages in which it is found. A brief history of tobacco is givenwith the process of manufacture and the ways in which it is used. The descrip, tion, uses, and hygiene of each part of the body; the skin, the muscles, the bones, the stomach, the lungs, etc., are taught; the effects of alcohol and tobacco are given with the hygiene. Caution as to using other narcotics, as opium and morphine, is given the pupils. This work is not only laid out in the course of study, but it is done in the school room.
Generally observed.-State Superintendent L. S. Cornell reports (1888): The temperance law passed by the last legislature has been generally observed throughout the State. In all of our schools instruction as to the effect of alcohol and narcotics on the human system has been given. The law, as passed, is somewhat vague and indefinite, yet it has been obeyed as the school boards understood it.
Douglas County reports (1890) the law as "generally enforced."
REPORTS OF SCHOOL VISITORS.
Lack of text-books and of interest.-The evident intention of our legislators in the law requiring the study in our schools of physiology as connected with alcoholism is not being realized as it should be, owing to a lack of appropriate textbooks, as well as a lack of interest in all concerned. The devastation, moral, physical, and financial, resulting from the drink traffic, calls for a more full and clear understanding of the direful effects of indulging in alcoholic drinks, and also tobacco in its various forms, that those who persist in going the downward road may not present the plea of ignorance as an excuse. Statistics of classes pursuing a college course show conclusively that those who indulge in the use of the weed rarely attain to the highest position mentally or physically. Fashion and habit hold a tyrant's sway over the boys who think they have attained to manliness when they can sport a cigar, or flood the spittoon, the floor, or the walk with foul tobacco juice and we know the natural tendency of this habit is to lead on to the saloon. The moral obtuseness of those addicted to the us of strong drink is something startling to every thoughtful mind. The gres majority of the accidents and crimes which are so appalling are directly traceable to alcohol, which is the provocative of nearly every sin in the calendar. I shall probably be accused of want of liberality in this matter, but when our law
makers in their wisdom have seen fit to place such a law on the statute book, it is well for us to heed it, especially when we are charged with the moral and physical, as well as mental, wellbeing of the young in our communities.-Plymouth, L. D. Baldwin, acting visitor.
Regularly and faithfully taught. The subject of physiology and hygiene has been regularly and faithfully taught. A conscientious effort has been made to select and teach the facts best adapted to the mental status of the pupil, and to impress him with the importance of obeying the laws of health which a consideration of the body and its complicated machinery suggests. So far as practicable scientific terms are avoided, and the matter is presented in language within the comprehension of the pupil.
The composition and nature of alcohol and tobacco are studied, and the effects which they produce when taken into the system. The evils which flow from their long-continued use are pointed out, and the effort made to create an impression which will result in total abstinence.-Norwich Central District, N. L. Bishop, superintendent.
Growing more and more popular.-Superintendent James H. Ward, of Sussex County, reports: The study of physiology and hygiene is growing more and more popular every year. Three years ago these two branches were introduced into our schools. During the first year comparatively few schools used the book, but now nearly all the schools in the county are making use of it; and very soon none, we think, will be without it. The teachers prove themselves in the examinations to be much more conversant with these subjects now than they were three years ago, and their interest will, of course, to a great extent assure us of the interest and advancement of the pupils in this part of a popular education. We feel gratified that the people begin to show themselves interested in this work, and begin to feel that the laws of health should be taught in our schools, and that the principles of temperance instilled into the children's minds should be considered a part of a good, substantial education.
State Superintendent Richard Edwards (1890): During the last session of the legislature a law was passed requiring that instruction be given in the laws of health and in regard to the effect on the human system of narcotics and alcohol. Whatever opinions may be held concerning the liquor traffic, every intelligent man will welcome all honest efforts to enlighten the people in regard to the physical effects of narcotics and intoxicants.
[From Report of State Superintendent Henry Sabin, 1999-89.]
Scientific temperance instruction. The law requiring that regular instruction shall be given in all the public schools of the State having special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics upon the human system has been the subject of much thought and attention. I believe the law has been steadily growing in favor, and that its provisions are generally complied with by our teachers. Not only has the attention of teachers been called to the absolute necessity of obeying the letter of the law, but in most of our county institutes valuable instruction has been given in methods of teaching this branch and in the arrangement of the subject-matter, so as to make the teaching most effective.
In response to many inquiries, in May, 1888, the following circular was distributed among the teachers for their guidance and direction:
To county superintendents and teachers of Iowa:
We are often asked as to the limit of instruction in the branch of scientific temperance in
The evident intent of the law is to place the teaching of the nature and effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the same basis as other branches taught in our public schools. The pupil gains his knowledge of arithmetic by successive steps: he must pass an examination in one part of the subject, and show his familiarity with it before he is advanced to the next division. Scientific temperance instruction should be treated in the same manner. One portion should be thoroughly mastered before the next is entered upon. If this is well done, the teacher will often find work enough in one part of the subject to employ and interest the pupils during a whole term. Careful consideration will convince us that the work in this branch of study is too superficial in many of our schools, because we are attempting more in a given time than can be done well. Temperance instruction needs to be reduced to a system.
We suggest the following plan:
In the first division, intended for little children, let the work be entirely oral, and confine the subject-matter largely to the simple rules of health, as cleanliness, exercise, and habits of eating and drinking, with but little of physiology or anatomy.
In the second division, instruction should still be given orally, but an advance may be made, in that the pupil should be required to carefully reproduce what has been given him, and to commit to memory facts and principles, so as to make them his own. The department of hygiene may be enlarged, and something of the mechanism of the body may be added. It is to be noticed, however, that this oral work should be very carefully prepared, with method and thought, in order to adapt it to the capacity of the pupils. It is of especial importance in these two divisions that you give, if possible, a strong bent to the child's mind against the use of liquor and tobacco.
In the third division the use of the text-book should begin. Here more individual study and work on the part of the pupil is necessary. It would not be well to endeavor to cover the whole ground of physiology and hygiene. The functions of the more important organs only should be thoroughly studied and explained. The action of stimulants and narcotics upon these organs should be faithfully impressed upon the child's mind.
In advanced divisions the whole subject of the human body, its mechanism, its needs and protection, may be carefully studied. At this stage a few of the more important technical names may be learned, and the functions of the various organs more minutely described.
In all your work care should be taken to give instruction in accordance with the spirit of the law. Total abstinence should be taught as the only sure way to escape the evils arising from the use of alcoholic drinks and tobacco. This systematic plan, if carefully followed, will insure a more thorough understanding of the subject, and teachers will not complain that they have used up all their material.
Allow me to suggest to county superintendents that you give this study, especially as it has reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system, the attention which it deserves at your coming institute; and that at examinations you submit to your teacher short but comprehensive questions to test their knowledge, as required by section 3 of the law.
Reports from every county in the State indicate that there is a very general desire to administer the law faithfully. Considering the difficulties naturally arising when a new branch is introduced into the course of study, the progress made is very encouraging. The attention the subject received last year in institutes greatly assisted teachers in their work. Our confidence in the fidelity of the school officers and instructors of Iowa to any trust imposed upon them makes us certain that much more will be accomplished during the coming year. To assist in this important work the hearty coöperation of all is invited.
HENRY SABIN, Superintendent of Public Instruction.
DES MOINES, May 20, 1888.
The code should be amended so as to require the teacher to include in his register. which he files with the secretary at the close of his school, a certificate that he has fully complied with the provisions of the law. Section 1745 should also be amended, so that the secretary should be required to furnish the county superintendent with a transcript of the action of the board, as required by laws of 1886, and also with the names of those teachers who have and those who have not filed the required certificate.
The attempt to teach the children and youth the injurious effects of stimulants and narcotics promises great good to the cause of temperance. The aim of such instruction should be to fortify the child against the formation of bad habits in his youth, and to lay the foundations upon which to build the higher work of strengthening the will, so that he may be able to resist temptation from whatever source it may come. In this connection I am free to say that I believe there should be upon our statute book a law making it a misdemeanor, punishable by a heavy fine, to sell tobacco in any form to a minor under 16 years of age. The necessity of such a law is becoming more apparent every day, and we ought not longer to delay its enactment.
Statistics.-Reports from the township boards indicated "that the law had been complied with in its spirit" in every township without exception; also that the teachers were "skillful in giving the instruction required by law."
In 1890, out of 15,762 schools, the effects of stimulants and narcotics were taught in 15,097.
We should unite to make the teaching a success.-State Superintendent J. H. Lawhead (1886): A vigorous mind inhabiting a healthy body can do more for the State than the same mind can in a body that is weak and diseased; and as the public school is sustained at public expense upon the theory that the permanency of the State depends upon the intelligence of its citizens, the State claims the right to have those branches taught in her schools that will best secure these results. Now a thorough knowledge of the human system is essential to its preservation and highest development, which can only be secured by a study of its physiology and hygiene, and the effects of such substances as may be deleterious to its growth and the healthy exercise of its various functions; and it has