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COURSE D.-For ungraded schools, or schools having two, three, or four departments.
[Eclectic series of text-books.]
Primary class.-Pupils reading in the primer, first, second, and third readers. "House I Live In," in hands of teacher for oral instruction. Lessons three times per week. Facts drawn from text-book.
Intermediate class.-Pupils reading in fourth reader. "Youth's Temperance Manual," in hands of pupils. Recitations three times per week until book is completed.
Advanced class.-Pupils reading in fifth reader and higher books. Guide to Health," in hands of pupils until book is completed.
COURSE E.-For ungraded schools, or schools having two, three, or four departments:
[The Blaisdell revised series of text-books.]
Primary class.-Pupils reading in the primer, first, second, and third readers. "Physiology for Little Folks," in hands of teacher for oral instruction. Lessons three times per week. Facts drawn from text-books.
Intermediate class.-Pupils reading in fourth reader. "Physiology for Boys and Girls," in hands of pupils. Recitations three times per week until book is completed.
Advanced class.-Pupils reading in fifth reader and higher books. "Young Folks' Physiology," in hands of pupils. Recitations three times per week until book is completed.
REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF A COURSE OF STUDY AS OUTLINED.
The reasons to be urged in favor of adopting a definite course of study in this topic, which includes text-books in the hands of all pupils above the primary, are as follows:
First. Such a course gives the definite time and place to the branch that the law demands.
Second. It points out the grade for which oral instruction is adapted, and those in which instruction should be given from text-books in the hands of pupils.
Third. It specifies the grade for which each book is adapted. The pupil just learning to gain information from a text-book needs one in which the style and vocabulary is very little in advance of his own. As soon as he gains ability to master a more advanced style and treatment he needs a more advanced book. To keep him longer in the book he has outgrown is to stultify his developing faculties. On the other hand, to give him a book too advanced is to discourage him and lead to a distaste for study. Either course is false economy and contrary to all educational principles.
Fourth. The use of text-books as specified secures the teaching of truth instead of the notions and traditions of some teacher who has had no special education on this topic.
Fifth. It will, in nearly all cases, prevent outside topics, such as the legal or political phases of the temperance question, from being brought into the recitation under the guise of scientific temperance instruction, which sometimes gives rise to trouble.
Sixth. It takes less time from the overcrowded school course than anything like an honest attempt above the primary class to teach the subject orally, which is always liable to cause waste of time through branching out into unimportant collaterals.
TOPICAL OUTLINE OF COURSE OF STUDY.'
[Prepared by Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction, W. C. T. U.]
This age needs men and women who are wise to resolve, strong and quick to act. Such men and women are the result of the right development of the threefold human system, mental, moral, and physical, and are the object sought by this study.
1 This topical outline has been furnished by Mrs. Hunt in advance of publication.
Because the use of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics is a prime obstacle in the way of such development, a knowledge of their origin, their inherent evil nature, and of their destructive efects is an objective point in the study of scientific or physiological temperance. But it is by no means all. This study does not stop with teaching the consequences of evil. It at the same time shows the road to the ideal.
As demanded by law and presented in all approved manuals of instruction, it teaches the all-round physical education that leads to strength, health, and such physical development as will make the body an efficient servant of a rightly trained mind-a meet temple for the divine indwelling. In showing the consequences of broken natural law, it is also a powerful moral teacher.
As some knowledge of structure is an essential basis, enough anatomy and physiology to make the various laws of hygiene intelligible is a part of the study. The whole subject may be classified under the following divisions:
(There may be differences of opinion as to the order of presenting these divisions. It is not essential that the same order be always followed, provided the division treating of the nature of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics precede those treating of the various organs and the effects of these narcotics upon them.)
1. Food. This division includes the uses of and kinds of food and rules for their selection and proper preparation, together with hygienic rules in regard to eating.
(For reference and personal study the teacher should have some one of the highschool books mentioned on the last page of this circular, and for guidance in the selection of matter appropriate for primary grades, one or more of the primary books there mentioned.)
2. Alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.-This division has for its object to show when and why healthful fruit juices and grain infusions become poisonous drinks that should be avoided. The instruction therefore covers the changes that take place in these liquids during fermentation, the causes of such changes, and the nature of the changed liquids.
(For full information on these points the teacher should study this division of the subject in some one or more of the text-books mentioned above, and for the selection of matter adapted to grade, the primary text-books before mention d.) 3. Digestion.-Its anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, and the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.
4. Circulation. Its anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, and the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics. In this division the controlling action of the vaso-motor and inhibitory nerves should be brought out as early as possible, because many of the contradictory appearances concerning the action of alcoholic and other narcotics on various portions of the body are only intelligible when this is understood.
5. Respiration.-Its anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, with special emphasis on the importance of breathing pure air, of full and deep breathing, and of right positions for securing this; also of simple methods of ventilating rooms in which no provi sion for ventilation has been made. Such information, put into actual practice in the schoolroom, will be carried home by the children and correct many of the bad habits in this direction that lead to unhealthful conditions of the body and to drink.
6. The nervous system.-Its anatomy, physiology, and hygienic laws that gov ern the best development of nerve and brain tissue, and the consequences of disobeying these laws in the use of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics. The shock of all narcotic indulgence falls with greatest force on the nervous system. Instruction at this point should therefore be full and emphatic. Effects on the intellect, will, and moral character, as a result of its effects on brain and nerve tissue, should be fully brought out, as is done in all the approved text-books, which also indicate how much of each topic may be appropriately presented in each grade.
7. The bones.-The anatomy and physiology of bone tissue and its hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics. Special s.ress should be laid on the fact that growth lost through wrong habits during the growing time of life can never afterwards be made up, of the importance of right position, and the relation of proper food, and the effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other narcotics in preventing healthful growth.
8. The muscles.-The anatomy and physiology of muscular tissue and its hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics. This division of the subject includes in its hygiene systematic exercises for the development of the various tissues of the body, such as calisthenics, gymnastics, or what are called physical-culture exercises.
9. The skin.-Its anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, including the relation of exercise, pure air, right food, bathing, and proper clothing to the hygiene of the skin, and the evil effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics upon the
10. The senses.-Their anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.
In physiological temperance, as in other branches which extend through several years of the school life, a few of the simple elements should be taught in the lowest grade, and these reviewed and more added from year to year, until an advanced treatment of the whole topic is completed in the high school.
In the lower primary grades a few lessons on the parts of the body should precede the work on the other divisions, which, in the lower grades, should consist chiefly of hygiene with only a very little physiology and almost nothing of the anatomy of internal organs.
Methods for primary grades.
Simple truths should be selected for first, second, and third year pupils under each division of the subject, to be developed by means of simple stories, objects, or pictures, or questions relating to the pupil's previous experience. The following indicates what may be taught under the division of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics to first-year pupils, to be reviewed with added truths for second or third year pupils:
1. There are ferments on the dust on grapes.
2. There is sweet juice inside the grape.
3. When the juice is pressed out the ferments get into it.
4. The ferments take away the sweetness of the juice and leave a poison in it Second lesson:
1. Poisons can do us harm.
2. Poisons may kill.
3. Alcohol is a poison.
4. We should never take any drink that has alcohol in it.
1. Cider is made from apples.
2. Ferments change the juice of the apples after it is pressed out.
3. We should not drink cider, for there is alcohol in it.
4. Wine is made from grapes.
5. We should not drink wine, for there is alcohol in it. 6. There is no alcohol in grapes or apples.
Methods for lower intermediate grades.
The law, in saying that this study should be introduced and taught as a regular branch, virtually says that the established methods of teaching other branches with text-books when pupils are able to read, and orally before, is to be the method here. But the books used should be adapted to grade. Where such books are in the hands of the pupils three lessons per week for fourteen weeks of the school year will allow time for covering as much of each division of the subject as the pupils are capable of understanding, without repetition or crowding other branches. When pupils have mastered so much of a topic as is adapted to their grades, they should not go over and over the same with needless repetition. The subject, after suitable reviewing, should be dropped for the remainder of the year and something else take its place.
Fourth-year pupils.-Pupils in the fourth year of school are ready to begin to learn to use text-books, and should at this point begin to pursue this branch as a regular text-book study. The matter contained in the indorsed primary text
book has been carefully culled with special reference to what is adapted to this grade of pupils.
Fifth and six year pupils.-Pupils in these grades are prepared for a larger discussion of the subject, which should here, as in all grades above the primary, be a text-book study. More time would therefore be required to cover the subject, which may here be distributed over a period of two years. Fifth-year pupils may take a part of the ten divisions, as food, alcoholic drinks, and other narcotics, digestion, circulation, respiration. [The hygiene of the last three will include the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.]
Sixth-year pupils, after reviewing the work of the fifth year, may take the remaining divisions, as bones, muscles, skin, the nervous system, the senses [each including in its hygiene the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics].
For the use of pupils in these grades a large variety of books that contain the matter that should be taught at this stage, expressed in language adapted to the comprehension of the pupils, without the use of technical terms, are ready and indorsed by the friends of the movement.
Advanced grammar grades.
For seventh and eighth year pupils the topics may be apportioned as in the fifth and six year grades; but the pupils will require text-books containing a more advanced treatment of the subject. Nothing is more detrimental to the object sought by this study than attempting to make one grade of books on temperance physiology fit all grades of pupils.
The spirit and letter of the law requires this to be a text-book study in this grade. High-school pupils are capable of comprehending the partially technical treatment found in the indorsed high-school physiologies mentioned on p. 699. This can be easily mastered the first year of the high-school course. Where examinations show that it has been so mastered the study is completed and should be dropped and not repeated through the other years. Pupils in the second and third years of the high school who have not had this study should take it up in those grades.
The divisions are the same here as in the graded schools. The pupils should be arranged in classes according to their attainments, ordinarily three-a prí mary, an intermediate, and a more advanced. Each class of pupils able to read should have books corresponding to their various grades. At least three grades of books on this subject are generally needed for ungraded schools.
THE SPECIAL WORK OF 1890.
"The special work of 1890 has been careful planning for thorough enforcement of legislation that has made scientific temperance a mandatory study. Two States, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, began this year what may be termed campaigns for this enforcement. The State organizations, after voting to make this a leading line of work, provided funds for paying the expenses of county superintendents or other organizers to go through the counties securing local workers; also for the necessary literature and postage. Literature, showing the local superintendents, as fast as they were appointed, exactly what to do in every detail of the work, was then sent out from State and national headquar ters."
"As soon as active work for enforcement was begun it became apparent that an accepted standard as to what constitutes an honest enforcement of a temperance education law is as necessary as the standard for temperance text-books proved. Time and experience have established something like school-room standards for the pursuit of other branches; but the conceptions as to how this new subject should be studied and taught were vague, various, and indefinite. From consultation with eminent educators and comparison of the fruits of varied experience the following standard was wrought out. This is being sent to superintendents of public instruction intrusted with the enforcement of temper ance education laws in various States. Its specifications as to minimum of time, necessary means, and method for the pursuit of the study is receiving their cordial indorsement:"
A STANDARD FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF A TEMPERANCE EDUCATION LAW
1. Minimum of time.-The pursuit of the study of physiological temperance by "all pupils in all schools," as the law demands, requires at least three lessons per week for fourteen weeks of each school year below the second year of the high school. After an adequate and well-graded portion of the topic assigned for this time is thoroughly learned, the subject may then be dropped for the remainder of that year. The following year a little more advanced treatment of the subject should be pursued for the same length of time. Allowing twenty minutes to a lesson for all grades or classes above the primary, this requirement would amount to only fourteen hours per year; but if carried through the several years between the primary and the second year of the high school or corresponding class of ungraded schools, would give sufficient time for a thorough comprehension of the subject without encroaching upon other studies.
2. Necessary means for the fulfillment of the law.-Well-graded text-books on physiology and hygiene that contain also the "special" facts concerning the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks, tobacco, and other narcotics, that the law requires taught. These facts can not be treated in less than one-quarter of the space given to the physiology and hygiene appropriate for primary and intermediate grades, or in less than twenty pages of the ordinary high-school book. These books should be as well graded to the capacities of pupils as modern school readers are.
3. Necessary method.2-Text-books in the hands of pupils who use text-books in studying such other branches as arithmetic or geography, and oral instruction, not less than three times per week. for those not sufficiently advanced to use text-books.
4. Examinations or tests. As thorough examinations or tests should be required in this study as in other branches, the same marking system should be used, and such marks should enter into the general average which decides the rank of the pupil.
The above standard of requirement for the enforcement of a temperance education law is both fair and just. Anything less would not represent the spirit and letter of this legislation, and would not be a pursuit of the subject "as a regular branch" by "all pupils in all schools," as the laws of many States demand.
1 Three lessons per week for fourteen weeks is specified, instead of one lesson per week for forty weeks, or two lessons per week for twenty-one weeks, because when the lessons come farther apart the pupils forget the last before they reach the next; the subject as a whole does not become so readily a part of the intelligence; more time has to be taken in reviewing the last lesson before taking up the new; the pupil's interest is not so well sustained, nor proficiency so easily acquired, as when the lessons are given in closer succession.
Without well-authenticated text-books in the hands of pupils, error is as liable to be taught as truth, for teachers have rarely received even a brief course of instruction in the subject, and their knowleege of the same is therefore made up of as much folklore as fact. Much time is also liable to be wasted over matters that are entirely irrelevant, such as the legal or political phases of the temperance question, whenever the text-book is not followed.
Teachers will be more thorough in teaching a subject in which the pupils, and hence their faithfulness in teaching it, are put to a test. The pupils will also study a subject more faithfully when they know that their standing or promotion depends upon their ability to pass an examination in it.