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CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS.
Relative importance of city school systems (Table 1)-Comparison of city and country schools (Tables 2 and 3)-Comparative statistics for four years of all cities reported (Table 4)-Comparative statistics of enrollment, attendance, teachers, and accommodations in the city schools of the several States (Table 5)—Comparative statistics of property and expenditures of the same (Table 6)-Number and population, by States, of cities, etc., of over 4,000 inhabitants (Table 7-Explanation of the same-Summary, by States, of school enrollment and attendance in the same cities (Table 8)—Similar summary of supervising officers, teachers, property, and expendi tures (Table 9)--Similar summary of public high schools (Table 10)—Similar summary of public evening schools (Table 11).
The tables immediately following (i. e., Nos. 1, 2, and 3) are designed to indicate the differences in the conditions of work that exist between the city schools and those of rural districts. The tables are self explanatory, and even a cursory examination will disclose the importance of the facts they develop. A few of these may be mentioned.
Though 32.39 per cent of the total population is in the cities, only 23.43 per cent of the enrollment is in city schools. This is apparently an indication that education is apprecia ed more highly in the country and that, though school attendance is surrounded by greater difficulties, country children more eagerly accept the advantages offered. The attendance is more regular in cities, as would naturally be expected. owing to the greater distance as a rule that must be traversed by country pupils and the better highways in the cities.
In the length of the school term rural schools are at a great disadvantage and the same is true of the average duration of each child's attendance. These may arise from the more meager financial support accorded to rural schools and from the exigencies of farm life which demand the services of the older children for a great part of each year.
The number of teachers is relatively very small in the cities, and the number of buildings required for city schools appears insignificant until their greater size and value are considered.
The slight difference that exists between the average cost per day of tuition for each pupil is significant and might readily serve as a text for a lesson on the meagerness of the pay of country school teachers, for there are nearly twice as many pupils to each teacher in the city schools.
On the other hand, may it not be that the greater proportionate enrollment in the country is at least partially due to the smaller number of pupils to a teacher and consequently the more intimate personal relation that exists be tween teacher and pupil?
Tables 5 and 6 are similar to others that have appeared in the Reports of the three years previous, and in Table 4 are reproduced for comparison some of the ratios shown in those tables. The data presented do not cover sufficient time to form the bases for any important general conclusions. The method of keeping school statistics and the manner of collecting them are yet far from perfect, and a variation of a few tenths of a per cent affords no ground for startling assertions of progress or the reverse. Such conclusions may be justly reached only af er the appearance of marked differences or a series of changes in the same general direction covering a considerable number of years.
For several years past there has been a desire on the part of those interested in the preparation of these statistics to present a series of tables showing with
reasonable accuracy the absolute totals of the several items for the entire Union. The first result of this was presented in the last Report, and similar tables are also included in this chapter as Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11.
To prepare such tables it is first essential to perfect a list of cities of which all shall meet certain uniform conditions. This itself is very difficult even with the census reports at hand. Table 7, with the accompanying explanation, indicates some of the perplexities encountered. In the years other than census years the difficulties are of course multiplied, since dependence must be placed almost wholly upon local estimates.
Then, having the list of cities, the collection of complete statistics involves a task almost hopeless. Many cities fail to report every year, and in the returns of many more several of the most important items are omitted. As before explained, estimates were necessary to make good the deficiencies. The corrections and additions that the circumstances indicated having been made, the tables as they now stand are presumably fairly correct.
TABLE 1.-Relative importance of city school systems; shown by comparison of the sum of results achieved by them, with similar data for the corresponding geographical divisions and for the United States. (See Tables 8 and 9 of this chapter, and Tables 1 to 15, chapter 1, Part 1.)
North Atlantic Division..
Total population. (Pro-
Public school enrollment. (Proportion in cities.)
Per ct. Per ct. Per ct.
In city schools.
In rural schools.
7.94 22.65 30. 15
Ratio of pub- Ratio of av
ance to total
TABLE 2.-Comparison of city and country schools.'-Attendance, length of school
6. 12 11.71 17.18
Average length of school term.
Number of buildings.
Value of school property.
Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. 3.49
Cost of tuition. (Propor
tion in cities.)
In rural schools.
Total expenditure. (Proportion in cities.)
Average number of pupils to a teacher.
In rural schools.
14.6 23.0 70.3 62.3
133.8 71.6 36.7 19.7
15.1 21.3 68.7 62.6 194.0
The data relating to country schools were obtained by subtracting the items in Tables 8 and 9 from the corresponding ones in Tables 1 to 15, chapter 1, Part 1.
TABLE 3.-Comparison of city and country schools'.—Property and expenditures.
Average value of
North Atlantic Division
Value of school
Ratio of private school enrollment to total public and private school enrollment.
In the country.
Ratio of average attendance to total public-school enrollment.
Average number of days' attendance of each pupil enrolled.
Average number of pupils in attendance to each teacher.
In the country. cities.
'The data relating to country schools represent the differences between corresponding items in Tables 8 and 9, and Tables 1 to 15, chapter 1, Part 1.
TABLE 4.-Comparative statistics for four years of all cities from which information
In the country.
Ratio of enrollment in high
15.63 22.85 22.34
In the country.
Value of school property per
Cost of tuition per capita of
TABLE 5.-Comparative statistics of enrollment, attendance, teachers, and accommodations in the schools of cities and villages of the several