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merely critics of her and her actions. Possibly she does not possess some of those advantitious attractions which are more artificial than natural. Surely she will not disown her own family heritage. Humbly she remains loyal to the "goodness and mercy that have followed "her all the days of her life. And she cannot divorce herself from her supernatural Bridegroom. We must throw ourselves into her cause heart and soul, as history shows us her sons and daughters whom she loves to honor have done through the centuries. We must live her life, teach her truth, worship her Head, with all our heart and mind and soul and strength. In the language of Hugh James Rose to Newman in 1836, when the latter was already beginning to waver and become the cold critic of the Church of England, "You must let me not endure, but love—and warmly and passionately – my Mother Church."

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Arthur Whipple Jenks.

Sunday School Opportunities

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Schools for the past decade. Teacher training,1 institutes, S. S. Unions, and all the paraphernalia including interdenominational" efficiency courses and the advice of experts are thrust upon us from all sides. It is not of all that that I wish to speak but rather of certain opportunities which the possession of a Sunday School to manage gives to the pastor.

Within the fold of the church children would probably learn more of what most of us want and all of us ought to teach them if there were no Sunday Schools, and if we could have our children in Church at the time the Canons contemplate, and catechize them. But although the conditions among poor children and apprentices which moved Robert Raikes to found Sunday Schools are things of the rather remote past, the schools remain and they have, as we have abundance of evidence, received a

1 A thoroughly practical and excellent little handbook to put in the hands of S. S. teachers is" The Sunday School Teacher's Pupils," Rev. H. T. Musselman,-American Baptist Pub. Soc'y, Phila. It is wholly free from denominational bias.

tremendous impetus of late through the application of "efficiency "to them. This has even progressed so far as to produce the sectarian slogan: " Everybody in the Sunday School," and we see its organization carried out to the extent that cripples and bedridden old ladies have their weekly lessons carried to them by the messenger service of the Home Department. We should have to run the risk of having our Church children join denominational schools if we abandoned the Sunday School and went back to the canonical catechising. We have the schools and the children in them, often many from families outside the Church's sphere of influence, and there are a few things which usually are not thought of, but which we might teach those children who sit passive before us for one hour out of every one hundred and sixty-eight.

Here is a wonderful chance to start in making the Churchmen of the next ecclesiastical generation. Most of the children in our Sunday Schools do not attend Church services. In a school of more than four hundred children I once found that only eight had ever been present at a communion service, and of these, five had been confirmed. In another school of sixty-eight children, only three had ever witnessed the chief service of the Church, and all three had been confirmed. One way to meet this condition is to begin having a children's Eucharist, once a month, at the regular hour for meeting, which, common-sense and "experts" agree, should be in the morning, preferably not long after nine o'clock. If you can command the services of another clergyman this is delightfully easy. One celebrates and the other gives the instructions. These can be infinitely varied. They might well begin with detailed instruction, which could be continued throughout a Sunday School year. The celebrant can give opportunity between the various parts of the liturgy for a few words of instructive explanation, made by the catechist who serves or takes the deacon's part. For example, before the service the catechist speaks to the children and tells them where the service begins, and sees that the places are found, the teachers, of course, coöperating. Then he tells them in a few words what an introit is. "This is the Second Sunday after Easter, and the introit will be the 70th psalm.'

They find it, rise, and repeat it all together. "We will all kneel down now while the priest makes his preparation. He says the Lord's prayer alone this time."

After a year or so of this, ordinarily intelligent children will become familiar with the service and understand something of its meaning. Then the detailed instruction can be dropped, to be resumed in another year, perhaps, and a five-minute address can take the place of the other kind of instruction. Even a single priest can manage it, for there is usually a devout layman who can be drilled into competence in giving the detailed instructions, which may even be written out for him to hold in his Prayer Book if his intelligence does not equal his devotion. Here, too, is the place to introduce any ceremonial with which you would like to familiarize your children so that it will be natural to them when they are vestrymen and mothers of families later on. Ceremonial which you may not care to use at other services may be used at the children's Eucharist, usually without even eliciting a comment from the critical members of your congregation. Sometimes, too, older people like to come to this service for the instruction or for devotional reasons, and they may learn from it more than they ever knew before, an experience common enough among grown people who attend children's missions. This kind of instruction is infinitely more valuable in the Sunday School than such matters as the relative geographical locations of Lystra and Derbe or even the construction of model Palestinian dwellings out of cardboard and clay.

Another thing in Sunday Schools which ought to be done is the explanation of the clauses of the creed. It would be safe to wager that not one child out of a thousand in Church Sunday Schools has the faintest conception of what the Communion of Saints, glibly recited, really means. The creed is of course the highly concentrated essence of the entire Christian faith. It is the whole Bible boiled down to a compact and usable working plan. It is utterly absurd to have children recite the creed, as they do in probably every Church Sunday School in the world, unless they know thoroughly what they are talking about. It is really worse than reciting the catechism parrot-like, a matter

which has received a great deal of comment at the hands of writers and teacher leaders in the field of religious education within the Church. It is hardly necessary to enter into details, but every article of belief should be thoroughly ventilated, interpreted, held up for examination, and illustrated. To give an example or two, it will be found that the idea of God among children is almost uniformly anthropomorphic, i. e., God is presented as though He is a very powerful and holy man. This idea should, of course, be broken down. Forgiveness of Sins needs a great deal of clearing up, especially in a communion in which the power of administering forgiveness of sins is specifically a part of the duties of the priesthood. The historic reason for the inclusion of the clause," Suffered under Pontius Pilate," should be fully explained. These vital matters will remain in children's minds long after the Kings of Israel have evaporated in the thin mists of mature forgetfulness.

Children take naturally to learning verse and rhythmic statements. The great hymns of the Church should always be used at least for children beyond kindergarten age. There are enough great hymns full of churchly teaching to occupy the musical attention of a Sunday School director for a number of years without wasting time over the puny substitutes which form the musical staple in many schools. If you ever want to have your congregation take active part in a sung Eucharist, begin with the children and teach them Merbecke's Communion Service. They will know it by heart, words and music, in a surprisingly short time, and these familiar points of contact with the communion office in their Prayer Books will remain with them throughout their lives.

The reason people find the Prayer Book hard to use is because they have never been taught to go by the rubrics. Rubrics are very generally ignored by all but the more intellectual and devout portions of a congregation, and almost universally by parsons in Sunday Schools. Children's attention should frequently be called to the rubrics and when this is done the reason for having rubrics at all in Prayer Books will be justified and the "difficulties" of following a service will disappear. Rubrics cannot be taught and mastered in a few weeks.

The general and specific duties of Churchmen should be thoroughly taught in the Sunday school. Such matters as the Canon on Church attendance (how many laymen including parish officers ever knew there was one?), the question of transfers, preparation before communion, and even meditation and the practices of devotion can be taught with surprising ease. All these things are commonly neglected, and the average child who has gone to Sunday School for eight years without missing more than a Sunday or two a year, ordinarily knows at graduation,- just nothing that is of any particular value to him as a Churchman. The things discussed and taught in the confirmation class constitute new material for most children who have spent years in Sunday School. Their interest in these new and strange doctrines is ordinarily much greater than had ever been aroused by the usual cut and dried Sunday School curriculum. Most if not all the usual material forcibly injected into the minds of confirmation candidates should have been digested long before in the Sunday School, thus affording to the pastor the greatest opportunity he can have of spending his time in confirmation preparation with that large proportion of his classes derived from the Sunday School in purely devotional talks, using rather than teaching the material already learned therein.

Marjorie Pope, the heroine of H. G. Wells' tale, "Marriage," sat in the railway carriage and thought over things, among them, religious matters. She couldn't decide just what it was that the Church constantly taught her she should want to be saved from! Probably ninety-nine per cent of our Sunday school children, if they ever thought of this problem, could not decide it. The material presented to their minds in Sunday School is so vague that it is no wonder they are not equipped to state and meet spiritual problems. If Marjorie had had a rector (or was it a vicar?) who had taken the trouble to make clear to her what the Church teaches in the name of God about the Forgiveness of Sins, she would have known very well, and in all human probability she would have possessed a lively desire to be saved.

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