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the public favorites are white grubs, wire-worms, plum curculio, bean weevil, potato beetle, potato flea beetle, elm leafbeetle, rose chafer, strawberry weevil, asparagus beetle and fruit bark beetle. Similar conditions exist in the Lepidoptera, the species attracting most attention being the corn-ear worm, apple tree tent-caterpillar, peach borer, cut worms, tussock moth, bag-worms, codling moth, cabbage worm, army worm 600


1915 CHART I.

and squash borer. In both Hymenoptera and Diptera a smaller number of species is involved. In the former order, ants, saw flies and bees are the most important from a public viewpoint, while in the latter we have the house fly, mosquitoes, Hessian fly and cabbage and onion maggots occupying first place. On the accompanying plates may be found illustrations of some of the species which are more or less constantly in the public eye. To the entomologist they represent well-known pests, but the public is always demanding information about them.

Briefly summarizing, the insects which ordinarily attract public attention are those which annoy or injure man or those

which destroy or injure his personal belongings, crops and live stock. Certain supposedly harmless species and certain species destructive in some areas but not in others have attracted widespread attention, but only by reason of the advertising which they received. In such cases public attention was directed to them and not attracted by them.

The average number of inquiries received during a year compared with the total population (2,800,000) of a state like New Jersey appears to be exceptionally small, and to some might indicate little public interest in insects. This, however, is not unusual when one considers the varied industries in the state and the fact that "75 per cent. of all the people are found in communities of over 2,500, occupying less than six per cent. of the whole area." Except for such creatures as flies, mosquitoes, certain household and shade-tree pests, the city and town dweller is not likely to have his attention attracted to insects. In New Jersey, considerable public interest is centered around a few rather than many species. As outbreaks of pests are simply responses to environments, so public interest in insects is a response at least in part to environment, whether it be natural or artificial.

2 Ann. Rept. N. J. Dept. Conservation and Development, 1917.

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Head of the Department of Botany of the University of Chicago, Retiring President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.


THE WORK OF THE AMERICAN postponed their meetings were ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- largely attended and full of inVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE terest. THE Baltimore meeting of the The association was fortunate in American Association for the Ad- meeting at Johns Hopkins Univervancement of Science and the na- sity, the original home of academic tional scientific societies affiliated research in the United States. Prowith it was unusually and unex- fessor Theodore W. Richards, direcpectedly successful. Owing to war tor of the Wolcott Gibbs Memorial conditions, the place of meeting had Laboratory of Chemistry at Harbeen changed from Boston to the vard University, the retiring presineighborhood of Washington, and dent, Professor John M. Coulter, it was planned to hold a small head of the department of botany meeting devoted primarily to war at the University of Chicago, the work. The signing of the armistice president of the meeting, and Dr. altered the situation, and the meet- Simon Flexner, director of the laboings of the association and of those ratories of the Rockefeller Institute affiliated societies which had not for Medical Research, the president

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Director of the Laboratories of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

elect, are admirable examples, in placed first, for the applications of their own work and on account of science have made it possible to prothe sciences in which they lead, of vide education and equality of opthe contributions of scientific re- portunity for all. The debt of edusearch to the welfare of the nation. cation and democracy to science for To chemistry we owe in large its past service, their dependence on measure the successful conduct of science for their further progress, the war and the maintenance of our are so great that no support given manufactures; to botany our agri- to science can repay their past oblicultural products which have saved gation or sufficiently strengthen its the world from starvation; to pa- hands for its future work. thology the low death rate from disease in the army. If chemical research and its applications are given what they need, the material primacy of the nation is assured; if botany and related sciences are adequately supported, the produc- tion, democracy and organization. tivity of our farms and gardens can be doubled; if pathology has more men of the type of Dr. Flexner, 5,000,000 deaths such as have been caused by the epidemic of influenza can not recur.

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There is probably no other association in the world that represents so completely as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the four fundamental bases of modern civilization, science, educa

Its object is the advancement and the diffusion of science, perhaps the most important of all educational work. It has a special section devoted to the scientific investigation of educational problems. Not only is its work essential for democracy, but it is itself a democratic institution. It welcomes to fellowship all scientific workers and to membership all those interested in science. Its council, on which all the national scientific societies are represented is a democratically elected body that can speak and legislate for the scientific men and scientific work of the country. The association now has some 14,000 names on its membership list. with the affiliated societies, some 25,000, or 100,000 if physicians and engineers repin resented on the council are included.

It was realized by all present at the Baltimore meeting that science and the scientific men of the country were leading factors in bringing the war to a quick and favorable conclusion. The applications of science have enabled the country to amass the immense wealth which could be devoted to the purposes of the nation; our scientific men were able to meet on terms of equal performance those of every other nation. In like manner it was agreed that science and scientific workers have a great part to play in the reconstruction period which we are entering. The whole future of the nation rests on the proper development and distribution of our resources in natural wealth and in men. We must now decide to lead in scientific research and in the applications of science for the welfare of the people of the country.

Science, education, democracy and organization are the four corner stones on which our civilization is based. Science may properly be

This great body should be used effectively for the advancement and diffusion of science. In a democracy we must depend on the knowledge and good will of the people for the opportunity to do the work that is of such surpassing value for them. We must make the scientific career so attractive that able men will be drawn to it, and we must then give them the best possible opportunity to do their work.

This requires education and or

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