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his, what I am tempted to call, more natural environment? Natural, for he chose it and adapted himself to it. When the staff of an institution like the Geophysical Laboratory, to cite a most striking example, is largely absorbed by industry, does not the matter become of serious concern? Should not the industries rather be encouraged to take their scientific men when they are young and not break up growing scientific concerns? No doubt a certain amount of interchange in scientific personnel is to be encouraged, but it should be interchange and not bleeding practised by industry. Providing an adequate. supply of scientifically trained men for the needs of industry and defining the proper relations between industrial management and scientific centers are questions meriting the most serious concern of the community. Our supply of scientifically and technically trained men is all too meager and if, as many expect, there is now to be a period of expansion in the foreign trade of the United States involving possibly the establishment abroad of numerous branches of highly technical industries, the demand for such men will become more urgent than ever, particularly with men of scientific training with engineering experience.

This brings us to the question of the education of scientific men, which subject it is possible to mention but briefly. Here again the interruption, disorganization and readjustment of educational training in America have been insignificant as compared with the disturbances in education brought about by the necessities of war of the European countries, but even in this country experiments with intensive training and shortened courses have been tried on a large scale, but, it must be borne in mind, for a limited period only. Our educational institutions will undoubtedly be able to preserve some of the beneficial characteristics brought out by such speeding up, but for the most part there probably will be little effect on the kind of training our scientific men will get.

It would appear to be highly desirable that as large a proportion as heretofore of our scientific men pass a portion of their preparative period abroad amid cultural surroundings different from those in which they grew up. As a beginning it is to be hoped that many of our young men now in France will be given the opportunity to take advantage of the generous offer of the French Government for instruction in the schools and universities of France. This, if carried out on a considerable scale, will have far-reaching effects, the benefits of which can hardly be overestimated. It is also to be hoped

our universities will not only encourage the coming of foreigners more than heretofore, but also render easier the migration of American students from one American institution to another. The establishment in Washington of schools framed on lines similar to the Ecole des Hautes Etudes and the Collège de France, which are devoted exclusively to research, would go far toward making more generally available the research facilities and scientific men of the capital.

During the war the scientific men of the country have been thrown into close association with each other, perhaps even closer in many instances than in pre-war times in spite of the decrease of attendance at scientific meetings and in the number of such meetings; in addition, there has been developed, as never before, acquaintance and cooperation of the men of science of this and the allied countries; and not only the men of one science have been thrown together but representatives of what we ordinarily consider very diverse sciences have been brought into close personal and professional contact. All this makes for the unity of science and the broadening of scientific men. It would seem desirable to make an effort to perpetuate this habit of association of scientific men from different countries. You will recall that in 1914 there were projected several international congresses in science and engineering. Would it not be well, as soon as circumstances permit, at least to revive these projected congresses with such limitations as comply with the conclusions reached recently in London by representatives of the national academies of the InterAllied Nations?

A very important matter that has been held generally in abeyance by the war and which will soon again require the serious attention of scientific gatherings is that of the policies regarding scientific publications. Very definite proposals have been discussed recently in England looking particularly to the avoidance of duplication, confusion and other anomalies in scientific literature and to its more effective distribution. This question again is a variant of the standardization problem and is further complicated by interests or prejudices, both national and professional, of numerous societies representing often if not competing, yet overlapping fields of science. For any particular branch of science, there are also the international aspects to be considered, including the question of language; and it is within the bounds of possibility, for example, that there will occur a revival of the more concerted efforts for the use of an auxiliary international language such as Esperanto,

or if you will a standardized, international form of expression in science.

If I have dwelt with less emphasis on some of the recent, strictly American tendencies of scientific development, I trust it fair to assume you are acquainted with most of them. The great work of the National Research Council is certainly familiar to us all and it is good news to hear that plans are being developed toward reorganizing the Council to meet the conditions of the reconstruction period. There is great need in the United States, with our relative geographical isolation and great distances between many scientific centers, for an active, scientific body devoted to the initiation, stimulation and correlation of scientific research.

Furthermore, by emphasizing the recent British developments in the relations of state, industry and science, I by no means desire to imply that we have not been active in America. These matters are being freely discussed here and many plans are being formulated and some are in operation, for cooperative research in various branches of science, particularly as applied to industry. The weekly and monthly scientific press are full of them. It is to be noted that in contrast with the British experience, in America less expectation is being placed on governmental aid to new research projects; an exception to this is of course the Smith-Howard bill now before Congress for promoting engineering research in the several states.

In America, individual initiative in the past has on the whole been more potent than the state in providing the funds for maintaining research. In the prosecution of the war now drawing to a close, however, the federal government has spent huge sums on projects requiring scientific investigation and development, and in order to carry out the scientific projects of military urgency, has mobilized the scientific men of the country. Is it well during the after-war period to demobilize completely this army of scientific men? No one would yet think of having no organized military force in peace time, and there is in every well-organized state always at least a skeleton army with all branches represented, including a competent staff, arsenals, depots, surplus munitions and supplies.

The great scientific bureaus of the government are organized for the problems of peace and, although they can give a good account of themselves under war conditions, yet would it not be well, at least until the millennium is more clearly in sight, to retain more than a nucleus of an organization of scientific men in the service of the state and especially in the mili

tary and naval establishments? We can all name branch after branch of each of these services which before the war contained almost no scientific personnel but to which have been added during the war scores and hundreds of scientific men; and in some cases it was no easy matter to gather and coordinate this personnel.

What, therefore, appears to me as one of the very important problems of the transition period, namely, the proper balancing and distribution of the scientific forces of the country as between the military and civilian activities of the state on the one hand, and the industrial and academic activities of the country on the other, is even now undergoing the process of being solved. The readjustment will go on largely unperceived at the moment and the changes will be accompanied by the usual quiet but significant struggles. The more rapidly the world settles down to more stable conditions, the more promptly shall we reach this dynamic equilibrium of the distribution of scientific men and the balancing of competing fields in scientific research.

ENTOMOLOGY AND THE WAR

By Dr. L. O. HOWARD

CHIEF BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

ATHER frequently during the past eighteen months,

meeting friends, they have said, by way of casual conversation, "I imagine that the war does not affect your work especially." They did not stop to think of the very great importance of insects in the carriage of certain diseases, the ease and frequency of such transfer becoming intensified wherever great bodies of men are brought together, as in great construction projects, and especially in great armies. They did not realize, entirely aside from the especial diseases of this character met with by the troops in Africa, Mesopotamia and in the region of Salonika, that even upon the western front, in a good temperate climate, warfare under trench conditions was rendered much more difficult by reason of the prevalence of trench fever which investigations during the latter part of the war showed to be carried by the body-louse.

Moreover, with the same lack of thought which leads people to ignore the importance of the officers of the Quartermaster's Department as compared with those of the fighting arms of the service, they failed to consider, not only how damage by insects to growing crops influences the food supply of armies, but also how greatly grains and other foods stored for shipment to the front or on the way to the front may be reduced in bulk by the work of the different grain weevils and other insects affecting stored foods. In addition, they did not think of the damage done by insects to the timber which enters into the building of ships, into the manufacture of wings for the airplanes, and that which is used for oars, the handles of picks and spades, and which even occurs in such wooden structures and implements after they have been made-in the implements, not when in actual use, but rather in the period of storage and shipping. A striking example of this latter damage is seen in the history of the Crimean War, when England, after a long period of peace, provided the army which she sent to the Crimea with long-stored tools for the sappers and miners, and it was found that the handles crumbled through the work of Lyctus beetles.

As a matter of fact, war conditions have intensified the work of the entomologists and have enabled them to make the importance of their researches felt almost as never before.

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