Imágenes de páginas

The Sowing of Grain.-The Sower of the Parables.-His
Art and its Defects Lasted until Nineteenth Century.-
The Problems to be Solved.-Assyrian and Chinese
Seeding Implements.-India.-Italy First to Introduce
a Grain Sowing Machine, Seventeenth Century.-
Zanon's Work on Agriculture, 1764.-Austria and Eng-
land.-A Spaniard's Invention.-Don Lescatello.-The


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Harvesting in Ancient Times.-The Sickle.-Pliny's Ma-
chine. Now the Clover Header.-Palladius' Descrip-
tion.-Improved in 1786.-Scotchman's Grain Cradle in
1794.-The Seven Ancient Wonders and the Seven
Modern Wonders.-The Modern Harvester and the Cot-
ton Gin.-Requirements of the Harvester.-Boyce.—
Meares.-Plucknett.-Gladstone and the First Front
Draft Machine, 1806. — Salonen introduced Vibrating
Knives over Stationary Blades, 1807.-Ogle and Recipro-
cating Knife Bar, 1822.-Rev. Patrick Bell, 1823, Cuts an
Acre of Grain in an Hour.-Mowers and Reapers in
America in 1820.-Reaper and Thresher combined by Lane,
of Maine, 1828.-Manning's Harvester, 1831.-Schnebly.
-Hussey.-McCormick, 1833-34.-Harvesters and Mowers
at World's Fair, London, 1851.-Automatic Binders.-
Wire and Twine.-Advances Shown at Centennial Exhibi-
tion, 1876.-Inventions Beyond the Wildest Dreams of
Former Farmers.-One Invention Generates Another.-
Lawn Mowers.-Hay Forks and Stackers.-Corn, Cot-
ton, Potato, Flax Harvesters. Threshing. - The Old
Flail. Egyptian and Roman Methods. - The First
Modern Threshing Machine.-Menzies, Leckie, Meikle.—




Chemistry among the Ancients.-Egyptians.-Phoeni-
cians.-Israelites.-Greeks and Romans.-Chinese.-Be-

came a Science in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen-
turies.-Libavius.-Van Helmont.-Glauber -Tache-


Black. - Cavendish. - Lavoisier. - Priestley. - Chemistry

of Nineteenth Century a New World.-Atomic and

Molecular Theories.-Light, Heat, and Electricity.—

Correlation and Conservation of Forces.-Spectrum

Analysis.-Laws of Chemical Changes.-John Dalton.—

Wollaston.-Gay-Lussac.-Berzelius.-Huygens' and

Newton's Discoveries in Light in Seventeenth Century.

—Unfolded and Developed by Fraunhofer, Kirchoff.—

Bunsen in the Nineteenth.-Young of America.--Com-

bination of Spectroscope and Telescope.-Huggins of

England, Spectrum Analysis of the Stars.-Heat and

other Forces.-Count Rumford.-Davy.-Mayer.-

Helmholtz.-Colding.-Joule.-Grove.- Faraday.-Sir

William Thomson.-Le Conte and Martin.-French Rev-

olution and Agricultural Chemistry.-Lavoisier, Ber-

thollet. Guyton.-Fourcroy.--Napoleon.-Sir Hum-

phry Davy. Liebig. Fermentation. - Alcohol.

Yeast.-Malt.-Wines.-Beer.-Huxley's Lecture on

Yeast, 1871.-Protein.-Protoplasm.—Evolution from

one all-pervading Force.-Alcohol and Pasteur.-Manu-

facture of Liquors.-Carbonating.-Soils and Fertilisers.

-Liquids, Oils, Sugar and Fats.-Bleaching and Dyeing.

-Aniline Colours.-Perfumes.--Electro-Chemical Meth-

ods.-Applied to the Production of Artificial Light.—

Abradants.-Disinfectants.-Pigments.-Mineral Anal-

ysis.-Purification of Water and Sewage.--Electroplat-

ing Metals.-Chemicals and the Fine Arts.-Redemption

of Waste Materials. —Medicines and Surgery. ―Their

Growth from Empiricism.—Anæsthetics.-Davy.—Morton.

-Jackson.-Innumerable Medical Compounds.-Antiseptic

Treatment of Wounds.-Vast Variety of Surgical Instru-

ments Invented. Four Thousand Patents in United

States Alone.-Dentistry.-Its Ancient Origin. -Account

of Herodotus.-Revolution in, during Nineteenth Cen-

tury.-Instruments.-Artificial Teeth.-Vast Relief from

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The Duties of a Civil Engineer.-Great Engineering of the
Past.—The Divisions.-Steam.-Mining.-Hydraulic.—
Electrical.-Marine.-Bridge Making, Its Development.
-First Arched Iron Bridge.-Darby.-Telford.-Lead-
ing Bridges of the Century.-Suspension.-Tubular.-
Tubular Arch.-Truss.-Cantilever.-Spider's Web and
Suspension.-Sir Samuel Brown.-The Tweed.-Menai
Straits and Telford.-M. Chaley and Fribourg.-J. K.
Brunel and Isle of Bourbon.-British America and the
United States united in 1855-Niagara.-John A. Roeb-
ling. The Brooklyn Bridge.-Caissons and the Caisson
Disease.-Tubular Bridge at Menai.-"The Grandest
Lift in Engineering."-Robert Stephenson.-The Tubu-
lar Arch at Washington.-Captain Meigs and Captain
Eads.—St. Louis Bridge.—Truss System and Vast Mod-
ern Bridges.--Cantilever Succeeded the Suspension.—

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