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crease or Decrease.-Effect of Economic, Industrial and
Social Life upon Inventions.-What Inventions have
Done for Humanity.-Thread of the Centuries.-The
AGRICULTURE AND ITS IMPLEMENTS.
The Egyptians the Earliest and Greatest Agriculturists.—
Rome and Farming.-Cato, Varro, Virgil.-Columella.
-Pliny.-Palladius.-The Decline of Agriculture.—
Northern Barbarism.-Lowest Ebb in the Middle Ages.-
Revival in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.-With
Invention of Printing.-Publications then, Concern-
ing.-Growth in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.
-Jethro Tull.-Arthur Young.-Washington.-Jeffer-
son. The Art Scientifically Commenced with Sir Hum-
phry Davy's Lectures on Soils and Plants, 1802–1812.—
Societies." Book Farming" and Prejudice of Farmers.
-A Revisit of Ruth and Cincinnatus at Beginning of
Nineteenth Century.―Their Implements still the Com-
mon Ones in Use.—The Plough and its History.—Its Es-
sential Parts and their Evolution to Modern Forms.-
Originated in Holland.-Growth in England and Amer-
ica. Small, Jefferson, Newbold.-Lord Kames' Com-
plaint. The American Plough.-Cutting Disks.-Steam
Ploughs: Implements for Preparing the Soil for Plant-
The Sowing of Grain.-The Sower of the Parables.-His
Drill of Jethro Tull.-A Clergyman, Cooke's Machine.
-Washington and Others.-Modern Improvements in
Seeders and their Operation and Functions.-Force
Feed and Gravity Feed.-Graduated Flow.-Divided
Feeds for Separate Grains and Fertilizing Material.—
Garden Ploughs and Seeders.-Gangs of Heavy Ones.-
Operated by Steam.-Corn Planters.-Walking and Rid-
ing.-Objects of Proper Planting.-How Accomplished
by Machinery.-Variety of Machines.-Potatoes and the
Finest Seeds.-Transplanters.-Cultivators.-Their Pur-
poses and Varieties.-Primitive and Modern Toilers.-
Harvesting in Ancient Times.-The Sickle.-Pliny's Ma-
Combined Harvesters and Threshers.-Flax Threshers
and Brakes.-Cotton Gins.-Eli Whitney.-Enormous
Importance of this Machine in Cotton Products.—Dis-
AGRICULTURAL INVENTIONS (continued).
Harvest Ended, Comes the Preparation of Grain and
Fruits for Food.-Cleaning.-Separating.-Grinding.—
Fanning Mills and Sir Walter Scott.-The Rudimentary
Mills. Egyptian. - Hebrew, Grecian, and Roman
Methods, Prevailed until Middle of Eighteenth Cen-
tury. The Upper and Nether Mill Stone in Modern
Dress.-Modern Mills Invented at Close of Eighteenth
Century.-Oliver Evans of America, 1755-1819.-Evans'
System Prevailed for Three Quarters of a Century.-
New System.-Middlings.-Low Milling.-High Milling.
-Roller Mills.-Middlings Separators.-Dust Explosions
and Prevention. - Vegetable Cutters. - Choppers.-
Fruit Parers and Slicers.-Great Range of Mechanisms
to Treat the Tenderest Pods and Smallest Seeds.--Crush-
ing Sugar Cane.-Pressing and Baling.-Every Pro-
duct has its own Proper Machine for Picking, Pressing,
Packing, or Baling.-Cotton Compress.-Extensive and
Enormous Cotton Crops of the World.-Cotton Presses
of Various kinds.-Hay and its Baling.-Bale Ties.-
Fruits and Foods.-Machines for Gathering, Packing,
Preserving, etc., all Modern.-Drying and Evaporating.
-Sealing.- Transporting. -Tobacco. Its Enormous
Production.-The Interdict of James I., and of Popes,
Kings, Sultans, etc.-Variety of Machines for its Treat-
CHEMISTRY, MEDICINES, SURGERY, DENTISTRY.
Chemistry among the Ancients.-Egyptians.-Phoeni-
came a Science in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen-
Black. - Cavendish. - Lavoisier. - Priestley. - Chemistry
of Nineteenth Century a New World.-Atomic and
Molecular Theories.-Light, Heat, and Electricity.—
Correlation and Conservation of Forces.-Spectrum
Analysis.-Laws of Chemical Changes.-John Dalton.—
Newton's Discoveries in Light in Seventeenth Century.
—Unfolded and Developed by Fraunhofer, Kirchoff.—
Bunsen in the Nineteenth.-Young of America.--Com-
bination of Spectroscope and Telescope.-Huggins of
England, Spectrum Analysis of the Stars.-Heat and
other Forces.-Count Rumford.-Davy.-Mayer.-
William Thomson.-Le Conte and Martin.-French Rev-
olution and Agricultural Chemistry.-Lavoisier, Ber-
thollet. Guyton.-Fourcroy.--Napoleon.-Sir Hum-
phry Davy. Liebig. Fermentation. - Alcohol.
Yeast.-Malt.-Wines.-Beer.-Huxley's Lecture on
Yeast, 1871.-Protein.-Protoplasm.—Evolution from
one all-pervading Force.-Alcohol and Pasteur.-Manu-
facture of Liquors.-Carbonating.-Soils and Fertilisers.
-Liquids, Oils, Sugar and Fats.-Bleaching and Dyeing.
-Aniline Colours.-Perfumes.--Electro-Chemical Meth-
ods.-Applied to the Production of Artificial Light.—
ysis.-Purification of Water and Sewage.--Electroplat-
ing Metals.-Chemicals and the Fine Arts.-Redemption
of Waste Materials. —Medicines and Surgery. ―Their
Growth from Empiricism.—Anæsthetics.-Davy.—Morton.
-Jackson.-Innumerable Medical Compounds.-Antiseptic
Treatment of Wounds.-Vast Variety of Surgical Instru-
ments Invented. Four Thousand Patents in United
States Alone.-Dentistry.-Its Ancient Origin. -Account
of Herodotus.-Revolution in, during Nineteenth Cen-
Prophecy of Dr. Darwin in Eighteenth Century.-Review
of the Art from Hero to James Watt.-Pumping En-
Fitch. - Oliver Evans. - Read. -Symington. -Trevi-
-Horse Engine. — Hancock. — Blackett.—George Ste-
kisson First Victim of Railroad Accident.-Seguin.-
John C. Stevens.-Horatio Allen.-Peter Cooper.-
Symington.-Lord Dundas.-Fulton and Livingston.—
The First Successful Steamboat.-Transatlantic Steam
Navigation.-Scarborough of Georgia.-Bell of Scot-
land.—Cunard Line; Paddle Wheels.-Screw Propellers.
-The Age of Kinetic Energy.-Professor Thurston.-
Variety of Engines and Boilers.-Corliss.-Bicycle and
Automobile Engines.-Napoleon's Stage Trip and Pres-
ENGINEERING AND TRANSPORTATION.
The Duties of a Civil Engineer.-Great Engineering of the