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education they imparted. The agents of the London and Church Missionary Societies adopted the same course. The Irish Presbyterians were quick to perceive the advantage of these same agencies, and Christian education has been found to be the special and indispensable agent, by all Protestant denominations, in their attempts to evangelize India. Of the thousands and hundreds of thousands of Hindu youth thus educated, in the different Protestant missions of India, I attempt no estimate. Let those who venture to decry these most effective agencies compare results in our missions in India, where schools have most abounded, with results in those where education has been almost entirely neglected.


I have already mentioned that for 200 years of growing power of the honorable East India Company in India, it sought in no way to benefit the natives of that land. We do that company no wrong when we affirm that its ruling motive, during all these years, was "lust of power and greed of gold." Some writers and speakers are forever declaiming on the mission of England in the conquest of India as being to evangelize the millions of her Hindu subjects. The honorable East India Company meant the evangelization of India just as much as Joseph's brethren meant the salvation of their race from the coming famine, when they sold him into Egypt. But when Gordon Hall and his associates took the gold of Christian charity, and consecrating it with their own life-blood, gathered with it the priceless sympathy of Christian hearts, and poured out all as a free-will offering on the altar of Christian love and devotion, thereby to bring to the millions of India the priceless treasures of the gospel and Christain education, there was a fragrance in the offering and a vital power in the example which no materializing forces could limit or resist. You scientists tell us of a physical law that no particle of matter is ever annihilated. Your Christian workers have discovered a law no less inflexible and wide-reaching-the law that no honest effort in the cause of God and humanity is ever lost. You may as well attempt to extinguish the sun as to put out the light of a noble deed. Hall lived, and died, for the Hindus. Such self-devotion told on Hindu hearts; nor less effectively on the better class of British officers who thus came to see that their heathen subjects had souls and interests that they, too, were bound to respect. The example of devoted men and women living and dying for the Hindus with no wish for worldly gain, brought its daily lessons to these Britons drawing their immense revenues from the sweat and toil of the natives, till, from very shame and to quiet troubled consciences, they began some puny efforts to educate their native subjects. The first formal efforts of this kind were instituted under the title of the "Bombay Education Society." This was in its infancy when I reached India 31 years ago. Its measures were timid and halting. They involved an unceasing conflict between British officers whose hearts had become amenable to the nobler instincts of benevolence and philanthropy, and officers of the old school who saw in every attempt to enlighten the natives, frightful magazines of gun-powder and dynamite in close contact with Hindu superstitions, all realy to explode to the total destruction of British rule in India. this conflict led to compromises as to both the quantity and quality of the education to be imparted under government supervision. Timid souls of the old school urged the greatest caution. They would have education doled out in homo

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pathic doses, and from these, even, would eliminate the slightest flavor of christianity. In adopting a system of rigid religious neutrality, they straightened up so perpendicularly as to lean a long way backwards. They put no restriction on teaching the Hindu Vedas and Shasters or Mohommedan Koran, but rigidly excluded their own Bible, and tore out the Ten Commandments from a European text-book they introduced into their schools. But


A beginning was made. The wedge entered, and required but gentle blows to drive it home. The schools were crowded with boys and young men. Progress was rapid. Under the discipline of Western education, Argan minds in India developed elements and energies not a whit inferior to those of their brethren in Great Britain. The schools-both missionary and government-increased in number. Their reports of progress inspired enthusiasm. Benevolent men, both in India and England, read them with profoundest interest. The Secretary of State for India in council authorized a system of grants-in-aid to missionary and private schools. The zeal of British officials grew apace. Universities, ranking in curriculum and thorough scholarship with the best institutions of Great Britain, were established, one in each of the large cities. These to-day are filled with young Hindus competing in all branches of higher education, manned by the ablest scholars of Europe as professors, and these supplemented by the most eminent of their Hindu graduates. The eleven different departments of public instruction covering the different presidencies and provinces of India-all now under thorough government supervision-have their colleges, high-schools and institutions of different grades, down to the common or primary schools, all acting as feeders to the Universities; and this system of education thus inaugurated admits of growth and extension without limit. Several of my own pupils have passed through the Bombay University with high honor, and now hold posts of influence commanding salaries from two to four times the salary of a missionary. I estimate the students in all these universities and schools under government supervision at 1,500,000. Of the thousands going out from these institutions evey year, constituting the educated and reforming element of Hindu society, I may not speak in detail. They are the potential, leading spirits in all parts of India. The elements of moral teaching are sadly wanting in government institutions. But instead of decrying them on this account, let Christian benevolence gird herself to supply this lack.


I have spoken of results actually achieved in this work of Christian education. I have not spoken of the mighty masses of ignorance still untouched. In following my rapid sketch of this movement-the kindling of an enthusiastic love of knowledge on the part of Hindu youththe establishing of colleges and schools in so many of the cities and villages throughout the whole land-if, in listening to this account, any of my hearers are inclined to infer-surely education has accomplished its mission in India, the millions of that land must now be becoming nearly as well educated as our own people, then it becomes my duty to guard you against such misapprehension. And to do this I need but mention the fact that, taking the whole population of the Bombay Presidency where your American educators first began this work, and where it has

been most ably followed by other missionaries and by government, the proportion of the population able to read is only 1 in 20 or 5 per cent. In Madras, 1 in 21.

In N. W. Provinces, 1 in 58.

In Central Provinces, 1 in 67.

The teaching and enlightenment of the millions of India is a work yet to be accomplished. The leaven has been placed in the meal and begun to work just enough to show that it is genuine leaven, and the meal is becoming amenable to divinely established laws.

I have left myself no time to speak of the coming results of this Christian education in India. That it has given a mighty impulse to some Hindu minds all over the land, is manifest. It has developed the highest order of ability in scholarship, statesmanship, and all the practicable walks and duties of life. It has exploded Hindu superstitions and raised an irrepressible desire and purpose to reform and elevate their people. One of my own pupils, a graduate of the university, closes a printed monagraph addressed to his countrymen with these ringing utterances: "Now, educated readers, let us shake off indolence, disregard the voice of trimmers, weigh evidence for ourselves, exercise the right of private judgment, gird up our loins and fight in the noble cause of oppressed humanity.' This man holds a high position as educator and author, prosecuting his work with rare discretion, energy and industry. Half a dozen of his published works, small volumes, have reached me recently. He is one of many thousands holding like posts of influence in all parts of India. Such men are an ample guarantee that the reign of Hindu superstition is effectually broken-that an era of Christian education and civilization has fairly dawned on India. Educated minds have become cognizant of their power and conscious of their rights. The progress of education and enlightenment has gained a momentum that cannot now be stayed. The contact of Christian civilization, and the changed policy of British rule in later years, have encouraged and developed native aspirations the disappointment of which would involve the gravest peril. The old problem of 1776 is again looming up, and demanding the attention of British statesmen. Educated Hindus are petitioning for representation in the British Parliament. I speak no words of prophecy, but indorse the utterance of my old Hindu pupil, from whom I have already quoted, thus illustrating, at the same time, the results of Christian education on Hindu minds, and expressing my sentiments in his own vigorous language, as found in his latest work on political reform, viz. "The stability of British rule in India will be in proprotion to timely concessions to the reasonable demands of the natives, to the willingness of our rulers to recognize their growing intelligence, and to give them ample opportunities to develop their civilization, and rise to equality with the natives of England." And again, combining western force of thought with Oriental affluence of illustration: "So long as England does not permit India to represent herself and her diverse interests *** the Indo-British Government will be like a magnificent massive bridge without the key stone; like a broad, high wall, without a deep foundation; like a religion without its revelation; a large and rich family without women and children; or a fertile farm in Marharashtra without a well in its center."

In closing this paper, let us not forget its beginning. Let us not lose sight of the humble American missionary, who planted the educational seed, whence has grown a tree so lofty and umbrageous-outstripping a

thousand-fold the beautiful banyan of India; embracing the whole land with her wide-spreading branches, and furnishing shade and shelter, and most precious fruit to the millions of that sunny clime.

Leaving wholly out of view the higher and spiritual aims of this work, I submit to you, ladies and gentlemen of this convention, that the results in education alone, with attendant and inseparable social elevation and improvement, are a rich and abundant compensation for all the toil and money and life expended in it. When my own memory recalls the dark kindom of Kolapoor, as it was twenty-five years ago-the very hot-bed of ignorance and superstition-how the highest nobility thought it no shame to be unable to read or sign a public document, and one solitary school of a few half-naked boys was all that deserved the name of school in the whole kingdom-when I recall these facts, and with them the patient, protracted, and persistent efforts, which, eventually, like droping water, wore upon the stones of prejudice, and drew the first pupils to our school; and then, how the number grew slowly, and yet more and more rapidly, till their fears and prejudices gave way, their love of education kindled, glowed and burned, bringing princes and people. under its sway, till the king and his chiefs contributed $200,000 for a high school-a structure more magnificent and imposing than the palace itself how we left 500 pupils in that one institution, and not less than 6,000 in the other outlying schools-when memory recalls these events, and the mighty change that has come over the great mass of the people-should not any man value an opportunity for bearing a part in such service in behalf of humanity?

We don't intend to shut our eyes to the higher aims-the immortal interests of this work. The 100,000 living communicants in the Christian churches of India, with the half-million nominal Christians won from the most cemented system of false religion the world has ever known, constitute a living monument to the power of Christ's Gospela monument to grow in magnitude and beauty for all time, and be crowned with immortal glory in eternity. And yet, on the lowest estimate of humanity, where can you find a grander enterprise ?-one more worthy to inspire enthusiasm and enlist the love and energies of human. hearts, than you have here in efforts, by means of Christian education, to elevate and bless, mentally, morally, socially and politically, people and races held for ages so hopelessly in the grasp of degrading ignorance and superstition?




By Principal EZRA J. PECK, A. M., of Homer Academy and Union School.

It is not the purpose of this paper to advance new theories in linguistic geology, or to lay bare the strata of buried language, and show that adverbs and prepositions are fossil cases. It is rather to make a practical use of the facts as ascertained, and to apply them to the work of the class-room.

To learn a language, is to learn the relations of words. To learn another language, is to learn a different method of expressing the same relation. If we use certain words as governing or relation words, we should, at least, define the principle of government or relation.

To say that a case is accusative or ablative, after certain prepositions, is not giving the relation or syntax. The work of the Philologists in giving us the original force and meaning of relation words, becomes, then, of the first importance in determining the present power and use of these terms. They have shown us that, in the older Greek, the preposition is used as an adverb almost constantly; some think entirely; while in the later forms and in Latin, the same word is used both as a verb modifier and as a relation word.

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The same is true in English. We say: "The sword pierced his body through," or, "The sword pierced him through the body." Beginning further back, nearer the protoplasm of language, the explorer has found that the adverbs are petrified cases, and that the prepositions were originally adverbs; but that either in the process of development, or by the law of "survival of the fittest," the prepositions have wandered away from their primary use, and have become mere connectives of adverbial and adnominal relations. Is this wholly true in Latin; are they not still clearly adverbs, with strictly local ideas? Grammarians have used them as governing words. Most of us, twenty years ago, or more, learned that twenty-six prepositions govern the accusative, and eleven the ablative, and have so taught others. Is this true? Does the preposition govern its case, or does the case require the preposition? Does not the case ending indicate the relation, and, sometimes complete it with the preposition? We say: "Eo Romam," but, "Eo ad urbem." In both sentences the accusative is the object of motion, and in the latter, the particle ad has no more to do with the verb than the noun. Again we say, Eo in urbem, or, Ineo urbem. In one case, the particle is post-position, in the other pre-position; and the meaning is precisely the same, and adverbial in both. It is not necessary to multiply examples of this kind. We shall find that wherever the particle is really a preposition—that is, placed before the verb, that the verb governs the case, either dative after verbs compounded, accusative of direct object or ablative of source and separation. The particle is then an adverb when a pre-position. Why is it not when post-position? We find, by consulting the lexicon, these words in the primary signification convey strictly local ideas, and that the accusative and ablative with which they are construed are the only cases used for this purpose, and it is not difficult to conceive how

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