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9.30 O'CLOCK, A. M.

Principal Nehemiah W. Benedict, D. D., of Rochester Free Academy, read a paper on 66 Words."

These were characterized as one of the most powerful elements in the whole realm of appliances for the due stimulation, growth, and culture of the human mind. Words are living powers, whose vital force is co-extensive with the human mind-coeval with the human race. The subject was discussed by illustrations from certain words and elements of words.

The subject of the paper was further discussed by Regent Hale.

Professor John J. Lewis, A. M., of Madison University, read a paper on "Culture and Limitation," which subject was further discussed by Secretary Woolworth and Dr. Spencer.

Miss Mary F. Hendrick, of Cortland Normal School, read a paper on “Expression in Reading, its Philosophy and Application.'


Expression is the outward manifestation of the soul within. It is this which characterizes one work of art as a masterpiece, or, by its absence, consigns another to hopeless inferiority. It is found in all its naturalness and vividness in man, and is the highest aim of the artist on the canvas or in the marble.

Reading is the interpreting of thought, and, taken in its broad sense, includes all modes and means by which thought can be communicated. Everything has a language of its own, and he is the intelligent reader who can properly interpret this language. The lungs and heart are the great organs of expression. They are readily influenced by emotion. The mind acts directly upon them, and they in turn act directly on the voice and features. The most prominent mode of communicating thought is by means of the voice. Words are the symbols of ideas; tones, personations. The power of tone is seen in its effect upon the lower animals. Next to the voice as a means of expression, no one will dispute the power of the countenance.


Pliny says: To man alone is given a face; to the other animals only mouths or beaks."

The expressive eye, the mobile mouth, the thoughtful brow, the suffusing blush, have formed themes for the poets of all ages. The human countenance is a complex instrument, formed to act in harmony with the speaking voice.

Gesture completes the trio of expression. It is the language of nature, and, like expression of the countenance, is universal. The variety of gestures of which the human body is capable is almost infinite, each particular organ having its part to perform, and all combining into one harmonious whole.

Rev. Royal G. Wilder, A. M., of Princeton, N. J., late of Kalapoor, India, read a paper on "American Educators in India," Regent Hale in the chair.

The following is a list of the topics considered in this paper:

Anglo-Saxon and Aryan Affinities. Pre-eminence of Ancient Aryan Literature and Religious Culture. Modern Pre-eminence of AngloSaxons. Why this Reversion? Causes of Aryan Decline and Degrada

tion. Their Present Rapid Improvement and the Forces Working It. Part Acted by American Educators. Their Number Estimated. Their Motives Considered. Extent of this Education. Its Influence on the Policy of Other Christian Workers in India. Its Influence on the British Government. Its Results, both Achieved and Prospective on the People of India.

The subject of this paper was discussed by Drs. Benedict and Flack, and Professor D. S. Martin, of Rutgers Female College.

Professor Martin said that he rejoiced that Mr. Wilder had had this opportunity of presenting these remarkable and interesting matters to the Convocation. No topic could be more valuable for such a body to hear and to consider, than the influence of what may be properly called our American educational system as applied in India. We see here the principles and methods that we are so familiar with, presented in a new aspect-namely, as the means whereby a great nation of men is taken hold of, as it were, and lifted up out of the degradation of heathen idolatry into the light and power of Christian civilization. A wonderful process, truly; and whence comes it? What is the mainspring, the foundation, of all this laborious endeavor, so justified by its results? Is it simply the philanthropic desire to diffuse useful knowledge and elegant culture? Not so. The men who have wrought out this work, not only unaided, but opposed and persecuted, and with no earthly reward, were men whose hearts were on fire with love to Christ and to human souls. Here is the educational power that can lift up and hold up nations; and such a presentation has a lesson for us. If ever the time should come, as God grant it never may, when American educators shall be separated from these ennobling and inspiriting elements, shall know nothing of God, of Christ, of human responsibility and immortality, of Divine Providence in the course of history-of anything, in short, that anybody can "object to," as has been sometimes suggested-what life or power can it then have to uplift or uphold the people? There is a weighty lesson here, about our proposed "secular " and "State" education, which we shall do well to heed and ponder.

Principal John E. Bradley, A. M., of the Albany High School, read a paper on "Regents' Examinations in Academic Studies."

The "Preliminary Examination," under the direction of the Regents, is now well known throughout the State. The Regents' certificate is sought in almost every academy and high school in the State. The last Legislature passed a law extending this examination so as to include academic studies. Great good is expected from this law. The advantages of such examinations are:

1st. They will afford a diploma of well-known and general value; a great improvement on the present system by which each institution grants a diploma which has only a local value.

2d. They will furnish a basis for admission to college without the expense and anxiety of the entrance examination.

3d. They will prove a powerful incentive to the student to thoroughly master the various studies he pursues.

4th. They will emphasize the importance of leading and fundamental branches of study.

An outline or plan of these examinations prepared by Prof. Bradley, by request of Secretary Woolworth, was submitted for the consideration of the Convocation, and the experience of the English universities and

societies for the encouragement of studies at home was quoted in its favor.

At the close of the reading of the paper, Regent Hale spoke of its great importance and merit, and on his motion it was made a special order for discussion in the afternoon.

Chancellor Pruyn invited the members of the Convocation to meet him at his residence at the close of the evening session.

Under the head of Miscellaneous Business, Regent Hale suggested the propriety of providing specific daily programmes of exercises, as in former years, for the remainder of the Convocation, which was agreed to; also, of guarding, with perhaps greater care, the scope of papers of possibly sectarian bias.

Recess to 3.30 o'clock.


Professor Wendell Lamoroux, A. M., of Union University, spoke, with illustrations on the black-board, on the subject of "Essay Writing in College," Regent Warren in the chair.

A paper on "The Study of Mythology in our Higher Schools," was read by Principal George H. Taylor, of Kinderhook Academy.

Principal Bradley's paper on "Regents' Examinations in Academic Studies," read this morning, was discussed by Secretary Woolworth, Dr. Wilson, Chancellor Haven and Principal Flack. In connection with this discussion, the Chancellor was authorized to appoint an advisory committee of the Convocation to co-operate with a committee of the Board of Regents.

Professor William C. Morey, A. M., of Rochester University, read a paper on "The Study of Roman Law in Collegiate Education," ViceChancellor Benedict in the chair.

Without disparaging the value of classical literature or the physical sciences, a greater degree of attention should be paid to the political and legal sciences as a part of higher education. Statement regarding the cultivation of the Roman Law in the countries of continental Europe. Considerations which recommend the study of the Roman Law in liberal education.

I. It is the highest and most distinctive product of Roman civilization. The comprehensive study of mankind involves an investigation into the distinctive forms of national life and thought. It is necessary to discriminate between the diverse forms of culture which distinguish the "classic" nations of antiquity. As the essential spirit of Greek life is revealed in pure literature, philosophy and art, that of Rome is exhibited in political organization and civil law. No adequate knowledge of Roman civilization is possible without an acquaintance with its legal literature, and its system of public and private law. Quotation from Legaré: The prominence which judicial conceptions acquired in the Roman mind indicates what special features of Roman thought should be emphasized, in any education which professes to expound the ideas of the ancient world. It is only in those respects that Rome has exiibited a distinctive character, and manifested an intellectual superiorty, that she is entitled to assume an educational authority in our modern institutions of learning.

II. The Roman law is an essential and perinanent factor in European civilization. The increasing attention which is being paid to the study of political and legal institutions as a necessary element of history, is throwing great light upon the perpetuity of the Roman civil law after the destruction of the empire. Work of Sevigny referred to: The Roman law was preserved in the Germanic kingdoms; it affected the feudal system; it entered into the ecclesiastical law of Christendom; it furnished a support for the government of Charlemagne, and of the German Emperors. The revival of its study was a prominent feature of the Renaissance. It has furnished the foundation of the laws of continental Europe, and has contributed important elements to the English law. The international law of modern Europe first received a tangible form through the interpretation and extension which Grotius gave to its principles; and the doctrine of the "social compact," which has played such an important part in modern times, drew its early conception of natural law from the civilians. The important influence of the Roman law upon modern history is alone a sufficient reason for its liberal cultivation at present.

III. The Roman law furnishes the best illustration of the principles involved in general jurisprudence. The importance of the general science of law, as an element of liberal education, cannot be over-estimated on account of its relation to ethics, and the insight which it gives into the principles of justice as the basis of law and government. The superiority of the Roman law rests upon its being the only continuous and complete development of legal principles, thus exemplifying all the various stages of legal growth. It, also, presents the most complete arrangement and scientific classification of legal rights and duties. With such perfection does it present the rational principles involved in the fundamental questions of law, and to such an extent is it the actual basis of existing systems, that no scientific and comparative study of jurisprudence is adequate, or even possible, without some knowledge of its spirit and form.

The study of the Roman law and legal science develops the practical capacity necessary in the administration of affairs-of applying general principles to special facts. It finally brings the student into contact with the universal principles which underlie all government and law, the knowledge of which is indispensable both to the intelligence of the scholar and the citizen, and also to the development and preservation of constitutional government.

The subject of Professor Morey's paper was discussed by Regent Hale, Warden Fairbairn, and Vice-President Russel.

Recess to 8 o'clock, P. M.


A paper on "Construction of Latin Prepositions with Cases," was read by Principal Ezra J. Peck, A. M., of Homer Union School. The subject of this paper was discussed by Dr. Mears and Chancellor Haven.


Principal M. A. Veeder, A. M., of Ives Seminary, read a paper on The Uses and Relations of the Study of Botany."

The committee which was appointed a year ago to devise, if practicable, some plan for co-operation in indexing and cataloguing college

libraries, reported through their chairman, Professor Otis H. Robinson, of the University of Rochester. The report began with a statement of the work to be done, and a possible mode of doing it, and then gave an account of the formation of the Library Association, at Philadelphia, last October, with the work undertaken by it. It was stated that the tendency to co-operation among libraries which hardly existed a year ago has been promoted by the Library Association, the Library Journal, and the United States report on libraries, prepared by Commissioner Eaton.

As this tendency has become so strong, the committee, after criticising to some extent the methods proposed by the Library Association, recommended that the libraries of this State work with it, rather than to start a separate plan now. The report was accepted, and the committee continued.

A paper on "Higher Examinations" was presented by Chancellor Erastus O. Haven, D. D., LL.D., of Syracuse University; after which the Convocation adjourned to meet to-morrow, at 9.30 A. M., and the members repaired to the Chancellor's residence, pursuant to the invitation given at the morning session.


9.30 O'CLOCK, A. M.

Prayer by Warden Fairbairn.

A paper on "Geography outside of Text Books," was read by Principal Samuel T. Frost, A. M., of Amenia Seminary.

The subject of this paper was discussed by Drs. Benedict, Mears, Flack and King, Prof. D. S. Martin, and Principals Young, Roberts and Rogers.

Secretary Woolworth announced that at a meeting of the Regents of the University, held on the 11th instant, it was

Resolved, That, in view of distinguished services as teachers, the Honorary Degree of Doctor in Philosophy be conferred on John Howard Van Amringe, A. M., Professor of Mathematics in Columbia College, and on John Winthrop Chandler, Principal of Elizabethtown Union School; and that the Chancellor confer the said degrees during the session of the Convocation.

The degrees were then formally conferred by the Chancellor (Professor Van Amringe not being present.)

The following resolution, offered by Principal Flack (in the absence of Principal Bradley), was unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That the Chancellor of the University be requested to appoint a committee, selected from representatives of colleges, high schools and academies, to confer with the committee of the Regents in devising and carrying into effect the proposed examinations in academic studies, and other examinations authorized by the statute (chap. 425, 1877).

The subject of Principal Bradley's paper was further discussed by Drs. King and Wilson, Chancellor Haven, and Principals Eddy, Roberts, Rogers and Slocum. No copy of remarks was furnished by the speakers, with the exception of Principal Rogers of Green Union School, who said: That in the sections of New York and Pennsylvania in which he had

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