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53. thane of Hygelac's, Beowulf the hero. Hygelac was then king of the Goths (Geats), who occupied the southern part of what is now Sweden. See the genealogical table above.

970. a. I. wave-traveler, kenning for boat.

3. swan-road, kenning for sea. gallant king, i.e., Hrothgar.

10. leeds, people, tribes.

11. fourteen in company, i.e., fifteen including Beowulf.

17. dight, prepared.

32. Weder leeds, Goth people.

34. sarks, shirts of mail.

b. 3. eorls, noble freemen. The word indicates nobility in general rather than definite rank. 28. Ecgtheow, see genealogical tables above. 31. worshipful man, man of dignity.

33. son of Healfdene, Hrothgar.

50. seethings, boilings.

51. tholeth, suffers, endures.

971. a. 12. Wedermark, the home of Beowulf's people in southern Sweden.

21. farrow, pig, boar,- referring to the ornament on the helmet.

24. hall structure, Heorot.

b. 2. damasked, ornamented with patterns. 11. leed of the Wederas, Beowulf.

20. Wendlas, perhaps Vandals.

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fings. Beowulf's father, Ecgtheow, had killed Heatholaf of the tribe of Wylfings.

11. Heorogar. See genealogical table above.

13. I composed the feud. The Danish king came to the aid of Beowulf's father, by settling the feud with the Wylfings.

b. 3. Unferth, spokesman of Hrothgar.

13. Breca. Concerning this person we know only what is here recounted.

20. meted, measured. 23. sennight, a week.

26. Heathoram people, perhaps in southern Nor


29. Brondings, the people of Unferth.

31. Beanstan's son, Breca.

32. soothly, truly.

974. a. 4. body-sark, coat of mail. 11. hand-bill, sword.

34. quietus, final settlement, death. 52. Finns, whom we call Laplanders.

b. 3. dree, suffer.

11. grisly, horrible.

25. dispenser of wealth, Hrothgar.

37. sovereign of the East-Danes, Hrothgar.

41. Helming princess. The Helmings were the tribe to which Wealhtheow belonged.

976. b. 24. weened, thought.

32. eldritch, hideous, ghastly, weird.

37. main, strength.

51. heirloom, i.e. sword.

977. a. 15. warlock, monster.

b. 3. mere, water, lake.

10. Hela, goddess of the realm of the dead. 12. bachelor, young warrior.

14. jennets, small horses.

38. Sigemund's exploits. The exploits of Sigmund, son of Wæls, are a well known part of Germanic heroic tradition.

See the Nibelungenlied and the Volsunga Saga. 42. Fitela, Sinfiotli, son of Sigmund.

50. quelled, killed.

54. Nathless, nevertheless.

56. worm, dragon.

978. a. 11. Heremod, a Danish king, who is here cited as a stock example of a bad king, a burden to his people.

13. Eotens, may be the name of a human enemy, or, more probably, mere giant monsters.

33. varlet, candidate for knighthood.

49. staple, perhaps a platform outside the hall.

b. 7. bogles, hobgoblins.

9. erewhile, formerly.

55. son of Ecglaf, Unferth.

979. a. 46. Hrothulf, probably the son of Hrothgar's brother Halga. See the genealogical table. b. 20. Ingwines, a name of the Danes. 49. brooks, enjoys, experiences.

57. The somewhat obscure lay of Finn is here omitted.

980. a. 19. lady of the Scyldings, Wealhtheow. 41. Hrethric and Hrothmund, see genealogical table.

56. carcanets, circlets of gold and jewels.

b. 3. necklace of the Brisings, originally the famous necklace of the goddess Freyja.

7. grandson of Swerting, see genealogical table. 11. feud with the Frisians. A reference to the raid of Hygelac into the territory of the Frisians about 512 A. D. Hygelac was killed in this expedition. See p. 967.

24. Brook, use, enjoy, wear.

28. these boys, Wealhtheow's sons, Hrethric and Hrothmund.

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48. damasked, ornamented with patterns. 984. a. 30. carline, old woman.

46. damascened, ornamented with patterns.
b. 34. eotenish, fit for an eoten, or giant.
41. Fetelhilt, 'chain-hilt,' i.e. the sword.
46. bill, sword.

985. a. 34. gold-friend, Hrothgar.

986. a. 42. Scania, used as the name of the Danish kingdom.

b. 16. Heremod, a Danish king, stock example of a bad ruler.

17. descendants of Ecgwela, the Danes. Nothing is known of Ecgwela.

53. carking, vexatious.

987. a. 43. eftsoons, very soon.

47. eld, old-age.

b. 12. settle, seat.

988. a. 22. whilom, formerly.

32. Hrethric, elder son of Hrothgar.

45. Hrethel, see genealogical table.

b. 5. gannet, a water bird.

31. gold-bedight, adorned with gold. 47. bachelors, young knights.

989. a. 23. hithe-warden, guard of the harbor.

40. Consequently, etc. The passage omitted from the present text contains as its chief item Beowulf's account to Hygelac of his encounter with Grendel and with Grendel's mother. At the end of the omitted passage we are informed of the death of Hygelac.

43. ethel-warden, prince.

b. 54. intayled, engraved, cut in. 990. b. 19. fire-gleeds, fire-flames. 991. a. 27. Beowulf uttered, etc.

The omitted pas

sage contains an account of certain of Beowulf's former achievements.

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b. 14. burn, streamlet.

18. prince of the Storm-Goths, Beowulf. 39. hoised, raised.

992. a. 33. Scylfings, the reigning Swedish dynasty. 39. Wagmundings, the family to which Beowulf and Wiglaf belonged.

b. 15. mead, a strong fermented drink, con taining honey.

30. our liege lord behooves, is needful to our liege lord.

37. Me thinketh it, it seems to me. 993. a. 11. gleeds, flames.

994. b. 26. brook, use, wear.

995. b. 12. escheat, revert to former owners. 51. Hugas, a name for the Franks.

53. Hetware, the tribe against whom Hygelac made the raid in which he was killed. See p. 967, Introduction.

996. a. 3. the Merwing, i.e., the Frankish king.

8. Ongentheow slew Hathcyn, etc. 'Onela and Ohthere are sons of Ongentheow, and often raid Geatland [i.e. the land of Hygelac and Beowulf]; Hæthcyn replies with a raid on Swedish soil. He seizes Ongentheow's queen. But the old king follows the foe, defeats him, and kills Hæthcyn, whose men are in desperate case, surrounded by enemies in Ravenswood. But now comes Hygelac with another Geatish army defeats the Swedes, whose queen again is captured, and besieges Ongentheow in his citadel. Ongentheow is finally killed by Eofor, whose brother Wulf has been disabled in fierce fight with the desperate old hero. Eofor is then married to Hygelac's daughter.' (Gummere.) See genealogical tables above.

10. Scylfings, Swedes.

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b. 25. Hygelac's valiant thane, Eofor. 53. bestowed upon Eofor, his only daughter. See genealogical table above.

998. a. 29. ruck, mess, clutter.

SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT The translation is that of Miss Jessie L. Weston. 1000. a. 12. Romulus. According to Roman tradition, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B. C.

14. Ticius. The person intended cannot be iden tified with certainty.


15. Langobard. The Germans who, in founded the kingdom of Lombardy in Northern Italy were called in Latin, Langobardi.

16. Felix Brutus, Brutus, the great-grandson of Eneas, the fabled founder of the kingdom of Britain. The name Felix may be the invention of the writer.

31. Camelot, a legendary spot in England where Arthur is said to have held his court.

b. 3. carols, dances accompanied by song. 33. Tars, a name of uncertain identification. This place is often mentioned in medieval literature as famous for silks and tapestries.

1001. a. 28. Agravain à la dure main, Agravain of the hard hand.

b. 19. gauds, ornaments.

51. hauberk, a part of the armor intended originally for the protection of the neck and shoulders. 52. gorget, a piece of armor protecting the throat.

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1010. a. 17. solace, pleasure.

27. waked, kept awake, sat up. 1011. a. 46. rede, advise.

1012. a. 49. tale, number, sum.

1014. b. 52. prime, probably about 9 o'clock. 1015. a. 29. spinney, a clump of trees or shrubs. 1016. a. 24. marks. A mark was reckoned at approximately 13 shillings.

b. 37. assoiled, absolved, shrived.

1017. b. 11. deal the doom of my weird, to suffer the judgment of my fate.

1018. a. 13. did on, put on.

15. cognizance, the crest by which a man in complete armor could be recognized.

1019. a. 26. let, detain, hinder. 41. greet, weep.

b. 25. kirk, church. 1020. a. 3. bent, field. 1021. b. 25-6. Samson xvi.

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Delilah. See Judges

Bathsheba. See ii Samuel

1022. b. 32. book of Brutus. Works treating the early legendary history of Britain were sometimes called Brut. See, for example, in English, Layamon's Brut, written about the year 1200.

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