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374. daunts, subdues (by fear).

376. peers, noblemen.

381. eftsoons, forthwith, immediately.

382. affrayed, frightened.

383. dight, provided. pardé, French par Dieu.

389. imbrued, covered.

393. whilom, formerly, once.

398. forehewed, hewed to pieces.

399. targe, shield.

401. Debate, dispute, contest, war.

402. fillet, a band for tying about the hair.

405. Darius, king of Persia 521-486 B. C. power,

army.

407. Macedo,

Alexander the great (356-323

B. C.), king of Macedonia.

69. 409. daunted, subdued.

410-418. Hannibal (247-183 B. C.), a famous Carthaginian general, among whose victories against the Romans are those of the Trebia, of Lake Trasimene, and of Cannæ. At Canna the Roman consul Paulus was killed. Hannibal was finally defeated by Scipio Africanus Major, at Zama, in 202 B. C.

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419. Cæsar Pompey. The civil war between Julius Cæsar and Pompey was ended by the total defeat of Pompey at Pharsalia in 48 B. C.

423. Sulla and Marius. The civil war between the Romans Marius and Sulla began in 88 B. C. 425. Cyrus, the Great (d. 529 B. C.), founded the Persian empire.

428. Xerxes (c. 519-464 B. C.), king of Persia. 432. Thebes, a city in Boeotia, Greece, destroyed by Alexander the Great.

433. Tyrus, Tyre, despoiled by Alexander the Great.

440. Priam, king of Troy.

441. lin, restrain myself.

442. sith, since.

445. quail, fall.

449. Hector, son of Priam.

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b. 19. policy, cunning.

24. discoursing, reasoning, argumentative. 32. fond, foolish.

35. honest, virtuous.

72. a. 2. charge, duty, office.

5. Paul's Cross, a cross situated near the northeast angle of old St. Paul's, in the churchyard. From it great public assemblies were addressed and sermons preached. The Paul's Cross Sermons' are still preached on Sunday morning.

13. Louvain, a city in the province of Brabant, Belgium. Religious books were often printed here. 14. wink, close the eyes.

25. St. Paul saith, Galatians, v, 19ff.

57. canons, ecclesiastics retained for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church. Morte Arthur, a compilation of prose romances on the life and death of King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table, translated largely from French romances by Sir Thomas Malory and printed by Caxton in 1485. See p. 19.

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20. Dixit insipiens in corde suo no est Deus, The fool hath said in his heart there is no God,' Psalm. xiv, 1.

29. Triumphs of Petrarch, an allegorical work by the celebrated Italian poet Petrarch (1304-1374).

31. Tully's Offices. Marcus Tullius Cicero (10643 B. C.) was a famous Roman orator, statesman, and philosopher. The work here referred to is his De Officiis (On Duties).

32. Boccaccio (1313-1375), eminent Italian writer, author of The Decameron, a collection of 100 tales.

45. Whether, which.

50. general councils, composed of bishops and theologians from different nations, convened to consider questions of church doctrine, discipline, and the like.

53. Luther, Martin Luther (1483-1546), leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

b. 2. epicures, those who held the opinions of the Greek philosopher Epicurus (342-270 B. C.), who taught that pleasure is the only possible end of rational action and that ultimate pleasure is freedom.

22. list, like, choose.

23. Mysteries of Moses, the rites of the Jewish religion instituted by Moses. See the Book of Leviticus. Law and ceremonies. See Deuteron

omy.

29. Horace, Roman poet (65-8 B. C.). Quotation from Satires, i, 5, 100.

51. Pygius, Pighius (1490-1542), a theologian whose writings were opposed by Calvin. Machiavelli (1469-1527), celebrated Italian statesman and author. He was imprisoned and put to the torture on suspicion of conspiring against Giovanni de Medici, but was released and after retiring to his country estate wrote The Prince. His name is synonymous with all that is cunning and unscrupulous in diplomacy.

74. a. 3-6. where Christ's doctrine regard, Germany.

16. lust, desire.

17. pantocle, a slipper.

special

34. bent enemy, cf. bent on mischief.' 50. Bridewell, a celebrated London prison or

house of detention. The name has become a neric term for a house of correction or lock-up. 55. present Pope, Pius V (1566-1572). 57. meed, a reward, gift.

b. 57. lust, desire.

ge.

75. a. 2. Guelph, the papal and popular party in Italy during the struggle between the papacy and the Empire in the Middle Ages. Ghibelin, the imperial and aristocratic party in the same struggle.

10. let, hindrance; archaic except in the common phrase without let or hindrance.'

JOHN LYLY: EUPHUES AND HIS ENGLAND 76. a. 4. This queen. Mary was queen from 1553 to 1558.

5. age of twenty-two years. At her accession to the throne, in 1558, Elizabeth (born 1533) was actually twenty-five years of age.

8. a prisoner. Queen Mary had imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London. Prince, used properly, by extension of meaning, to designate a royal personage of either sex.

28. Zeno, a philosopher of Elea (born c. 488 B. C.), was mentioned in classical times as an example of patience.

29. Eretricus, apparently Lyly's own invention. 30. Lycurgus, either the Spartan legislator (9th century B. C.), or the Athenian orator (c. 396-c. 323 B. C.).

b. 9. spill, destroy.

10. proffer, offer.

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77. a. 2. Antoninus (emperor of Rome 138-161 A. D.), surnamed 'Pius.'

12-13. gun that was shot off. This was, for Lyly, a recent occurrence, of the summer of 1579. 24. close, secret.

29. in the whale's belly. An allusion to the story of Jonah. See Jonah i-ii.

31. in the hot oven. An allusion to the story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. See Daniel iii. 40. list, please.

43. Theodosius, an allusion, perhaps, to the repentance of Theodosius I (c. 346-395), Emperor of the East, after his massacre of the rebels of Thessalonica in 390.

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45-8. Augustus write. This anecdote is recounted not of Augustus, but of Nero, emperor of Rome 54-68.

47. we, royal use of plural for singular.

b. 18. Praxitiles, born at Athens near the end of the 5th century B. C. A famous sculptor. His statues of Venus and Cupid are known, but not his paintings.

19. her son, Cupid.

28. Zeuxis, a famous Greek painter who flourished at the end of the 5th century B. C.

36. table, probably a slab, or tablet.

39. Apelles, a famous Greek painter who flourished in the early part of the 4th century B. C. 54. narrowly, closely.

78. a. 6. mold, pattern, model.

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79. a. 4. gallery of Olympia. Reference to mous echoing gallery at Olympia, in Greece. 34. curses of the Pope. Pope Pius V directed a bull of excommunication and deposition against Elizabeth in 1570.

b. 17. Alexander, the Great' (356-323 B. C.), king of Macedon. Galba (3 B. C.-69 A. D.), a Roman emperor.

20. queen of Navarre, Margaret d' Angouleme (1492-1549), queen of Henry II of Navarre. Elizabeth, while princess, translated a small book of religious meditations from the French of Margaret.

25-6. bound torious in Egypt.

42. silly, innocent. 46. whist, silent.

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