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'Nor do I anywise count upon peace or good understanding on the side of Sweden; indeed, it was a far-famed story, how that Ongentheow slew Hatheyn the son of Hrethel, by Ravenswood, whenas the warlike Scylfings had been the first to invade for sheer insolence the people of the Goths. Promptly did the veteran, the father of Ohthere, old and awful, deliver his onslaught, demolished the sea-king (Hæthcyn), rescued his consort, the aged man rescued the wife of his youth, though plundered of her jewels, the mother of Onela and of Ohthere, and then pursued his deadly foes, until they got away, with great difficulty, into 20 Ravensholt, bereaved of their lord. Then did he, with host drawn out, surround those whom the sword had left, men exhausted with wounds, he repeatedly threatened woe to the poor band all the 25 livelong night: he said that in the morning he would reach them with the edge of the sword, and (hang) some on gallow-trees to please the birds.

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leeds; the banners of Hygelac moved forward over that peaceful plain, and presently the Hrethlings massed themselves upon the garrison. Then Ongentheow, the gray-haired, driven to bay with sword-edges, insomuch that the mighty king was constrained to put up with the one-handed decision of Eofor. Him (Ongentheow) had Wulf, son of Wonred, fiercely attacked with weapon, so effectually, that with the stroke his blood flew from his veins out from under his hair. He was not daunted, however, the aged Scylfing; but he quickly 15 repaid that deadly assault with worse barter, as soon as the mighty king had collected himself. The brisk son of Wonred failed to give counter-blow to the old veteran, but he (Ongentheow) had first shorn the helmet on his head, so that blood-sprinkled he was forced to bow, he fell on the ground; — he was not at that time death-doomed as yet, but he recovered from it, though the wound had touched him close. Then did Hygelac's valiant thane let his broad blade, gigantesque old sword, his dwarfwrought helmet, break over the shieldwall; then crouched the king, the people's shepherd, he was fatally smitten. Then were there many who bound up his brother's wounds (of Wulf the brother of Eofor), who quickly raised him up, when they had got the ground cleared, 35 so that they had command of the place of battle. Meanwhile warrior stripped warrior; he (Eofor) captured on Ongentheow the iron breast-mail, his hard sword with hilt, and his helmet likewise,

Courage at length returned to the de- 30 jected men with dawn of day, when they heard Hygelac's horn, and the sound of his trumpet; presently the brave (prince) came marching upon their track with the best of his leeds.



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40 the gray-beard's accoutrements; — to Hygelac he bare them. He accepted the spoils, and made him a fair promise of rewards before his leeds, and he kept his word; he, the lord of the Goths, the son of Hrethel, when he arrived at his mansion, repaid Eofor and Wulf for that war-brunt, with treasure extraordinary; he gave to each of them a hundred thousand of land and collars of filigree; none could jeer at them for those rewards, not a man in the world, since they had achieved those exploits; and moreover he bestowed upon Eofor, his only daughter, to make his home honorable, and for a pledge of loyalty.

Then was the gory track of Swedes and Goths, the deadly strife of men, widely conspicuous, how the folk either side revived the feud. Then did 45 the valiant man proceed with his comrades, the solemn veteran, to seek a place of strength; the warrior Ongentheow turned towards the hill; he had heard tell of the warfare of Hygelac, the 50 war-craft of the valiant; he trusted not in resistance, that he could defy the seamen, the travelers of the deep, could protect his treasure, his children, and his wife; so he retired back therefrom, the 55 old king retired behind the earth-wall. Then was chase given to the Swedish

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Such is the feud and the enmity and the deadly grudge of the men, even the


Swedish leeds, who, as I apprehend, will
attack us, as soon as they shall learn
that our prince is dead, he who whilere
hath upheld against hostilities, our treas-
ure and our realm, was master of public
counsel, or won ever-increasing glory in
war. Now is quickness best, that we
should there look upon the mighty king,
and bring him who gave us bracelets, on
to the funeral-pile. It is not meet that 10
some trifling matter be consumed with
the high-souled man; but yonder is a
hoard of precious things, gold uncounted,
frightfully bargained for, and now at
last jewels purchased with the hero's own 15
life; those must fire devour, the flame
must enfold them; never a warrior wear
ornament for memorial, nor maiden sheen
have on her neck the decorated collar, but
on the contrary must in dejected mood 20
and stripped of gold ornaments tread
often and often the land of the stranger,
now the army leader hath laid aside
laughter, game, and glee. Therefore
shall many a spear in the cold of the 25
morning be clutched in men's grasp,
hoisted in the hand; no swough of harp
shall waken the warriors: but the bleak
raven fluttering over carnage shall chat-
ter abundantly, recount to the eagle of
his luck at the spread, while alongside
of the wolf he stripped the slain.'

there dishes lay about, and swords of price, rusty and corroded, as if they in earth's lap a thousand winters there had sojourned; forasmuch as that patrimony, huge and vast, that gold of ancient men, had been closed about with enchantment; and therefore that treasure-chamber might not be touched by any one of mankind, save in so far as God himself, the true king of achievements, should grant to the man of his choice to open the hoard, the sorcerers' hold: - even to such one of mankind whomso he deemed to be meet.




Then was it manifest, that good luck attended not upon the course of them who by unlawful means had closely safeguarded valuables under the mound. At first the keeper slew one here and there; 30 at length the feud had grown to be expiated furiously. By a heroic death therefore in some manner should a brave warrior accomplish the end of life's record, seeing that he cannot much longer as a man in the midst of his kinsfolk inhabit the mead-hall. Such was Beowulf's lot, when he went forth to seek the keeper of the barrow, went to seek deadly strife, he himself knew not by what means his severance from the world was destined to happen, according as the mighty captains, when they that deposited there, had uttered a deep spell to hold till doomsday, that the man who invaded that ground should be criminally guilty, cabined in heathen fanes, fast bound with hell-bands, penally doomed; yet never did he at any previous time more effectually experience the gold-bestowing favor of God.

Thus was the ardent youth discoursing of painful themes; he erred not widely of events or words. All the troop arose, 35 they went unjoyous, under the Eagle's Crag, with gushing tears, to behold the tremendous sight. They found there, on the sand, bereft of life, and keeping his helpless bed, the man who had given 40 them rings in times bygone; there had the final day come to the valiant, in that the warlike king, the prince of the Wederas, had perished with a death heroic.

never saw they frightfuller 45 object — the dragon on the ground there right before their face, the loathsome beast lying dead; all scorched with flames was the fire-drake, the grisly gruesome pest; it was fifty foot-measure- 50 ments long where it lay; in the pride of the air he had been supreme during the hours of night, and then down would he return back again to reconnoitre his lair:

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Wiglaf, son of Weohstan, lifted up his voice: Often must many a brave man, by the will of one, endure tribulation, as it hath happened to us. We were not able to convince our beloved master, the shepherd of the kingdom, by any reasoning, that he should not challenge yon

gold-warden, but should leave him to lie where he had long been, and to dwell in his haunts till the end of the world, fulfil high destiny. The hoard is laid open to our view, fearfully purchased; too overpowering was that boon which attracted our prince thither. I was in the interior of the place, and I explored the whole of it, the stores of the chamber, inasmuch as the way had been opened 10 for me and that by no gentle means, passage was permitted in under the earthern dome. Hurriedly I grappled with my hands a huge mighty burden of hoarded treasures; out hither I bore them to the feet of my king. He was still alive then, wise and sensible; freely did he talk, the aged one in death-pang; and he commanded me to give you his greeting, he bade that you should construct, in 20 memory of your chieftain's deeds, upon the scene of the bale-fire, a barrow of the highest, mighty and magnifical, according as he was of all men the warrior most famous, through the wide earth, so 25 long as he might enjoy the wealth of his


'Go to, let us now hasten, a second time, to see and to visit the ruck of jewels, the spectacle beneath the earthwork. I will be your guide, so that ye shall have your fill of seeing close at hand, collars and bullion gold.

Let the bier be ready, promptly equipped, attending us as we go forth of this place, and so let us convey our master, the beloved man, to the place where he shall tarry long in the safe keeping of the Almighty.'

warrior bore in hand a flaming torch, not and he walked in front. It was staked upon lot who should have the looting of that hoard, when the warriors 5 had partly taken a view of it in its keeperless state occupying the chamber, lying helpless. Little did any man scruple that they should with all despatch convey abroad the valuable treasures; the dragon moreover they haled, they shoved the worm over the precipitous cliff, they let the wave take him, the flood engulf him, that warder of precious spoils.

There was

coiled gold laden upon 15 wagon, countless in quantity of every kind; the etheling was borne bier, the hoary warrior, to Hronesness.



Then did the son of Weohstan order his 40 brave warriors that they should issue commands to many homestead-owners, for them to haul pyre-timber from far to meet the occasion of the ruler of men: Now must fire devour, the 45 scowling flame must wash, the pillar of warriors, him who often stood the shock of the iron shower, what time the storm of missiles, urged by bow-strings, hurtled over the shield-wall, the shaft did its duty, with feather-fittings eager it backed up the arrow's point.'

Thereupon the prudent son of Weohstan called out of the squadron some thanes of the king, seven of them together, the choicest; he made the eighth, and went with them under the dangerous roof; a






THE FUNERAL AND THE EPITAPH. For him then did the leeds of the Goths construct a pyre upon the earth, one of no mean dimensions, hung about with helmets, with battle-boards, with bright byrnies, as he had requested; then did they, heaving deep sighs, lay in the midst of it the illustrious chieftain, the hero, the beloved lord. Then began the warriors to kindle upon the hill the hugest of bale-fires; the wood-smoke mounted up black over the combustive mass, the roaring blaze shot aloft, mingled with the howling of the windcurrents; until the sweltering element had demolished the bone-house. With hearts distressed and care-laden minds they mourned their liege lord's death; likewise a dirge of sorrow [was sung in honor of Beowulf by the aged dame, her hair bound up, her soul sorrowing; she said repeatedly, that she sorely dreaded for herself evil days, much bloodshed, the warrior's horror, shame and captivity]. Heaven swallowed the smoke.

Then did the people of the Wederas construct a mound on the hill; it was high and broad, to sea-voyagers widely conspicuous; and during ten days they labored about the building of the warhero's beacon: they surrounded the ashes of the conflagration with an embankment in such wise as men of eminent skill could contrive it with noblest effect. They deposited in the barrow collars and brilliants, the whole of such trappings as war-breathing men had recently cap

tured in the hoard; they abandoned the accumulated wealth of eorls for the earth to retain it, gold in marl, where it now still continues to be as useless to mankind as it was erst.

work; as it is fitting that a man should with words extol his liege lord, should cherish him in his affections, when he must take his departure from the ten5 emental body.

Then there rode round the mound Thus did the leeds of the Goths, the war-chiefs, sons of ethelings, twelve in companions of his hearth, lament the fall all; they would bewail their loss, bemoan of their lord; - they said that he was the king, recite an elegy, and celebrate of all kings in the world, the mildest his name. They admired his manhood, 10 and most affable to his men; most genial and they loftily appraised his daring to his leeds; and most desirous of praise.


The romantic stories cherished by the Norman conquerors of England found equal favor. in course of time, among the English. By the time of Chaucer's birth, English romances in verse were in full bloom, and during the course of that poet's life appeared the finest of ai English romances, the anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. This romance as we have it combines two stories that were originally separate: the test of Sir Gawain's bravery through the compact with the Green Knight, and the test of Sir Gawain's honor and chastity through the wife of his host of the castle. Although the English author probably drew materials for his story directly from French sources, many of the structural and rhetorica' excellencies of the present poem are certainly his own. A tale of daring, loyalty, courtesy, and religious devotion is presented in a spirit of refinement not to be exceeded. The poet's power of language is best shown in the scenery through which Sir Gawain is set a-wandering,the winter scenery, not of conventional romance, but of Arthur's own Britain.


After the siege and the assault of
Troy, when that burg was destroyed and
burnt to ashes, and the traitor tried for
his treason, the noble Eneas and his kin
sailed forth to become princes and pa-
trons of well-nigh all the Western Isles. 10
Thus Romulus built Rome (and gave to
the city his own name, which it bears
even to this day); and Ticius turned him
to Tuscany; and Langobard raised him
up dwellings in Lombardy; and Felix 15
Brutus sailed far over the French flood,
and founded the kingdom of Britain,
wherein have been war and waste and
wonder, and bliss and bale, ofttimes

And in that kingdom of Britain have been wrought more gallant deeds than in any other; but of all British kings Arthur was the most valiant, as I have heard tell; therefore will I set forth a wondrous ad- 25 venture that fell out in his time. And if ye will listen to me, but for a little while, I will tell it even as it stands in story stiff and strong, fixed in the letter, as it hath long been known in the land.

one while they would ride forth to joust and tourney, and again back to the court to make carols; for there was the feast holden fifteen days with all the mirth that 5 men could devise, song and glee, glorious to hear, in the daytime, and dancing at night. Halls and chambers were crowded with noble guests, the bravest of knights and the loveliest of ladies, and Arthur himself was the comeliest king that ever held a court. For all this fair folk were in their youth, the fairest and most fortunate under heaven, and the king himself of such fame that it were hard now to name so valiant a hero.

Now the New Year had but newly come in, and on that day a double portion was served on the high table to all the noble guests, and thither came the king 20 with all his knights, when the service in the chapel had been sung to an end. And they greeted each other for the New Year, and gave rich gifts, the one to the other (and they that received them were not wroth, that may ye well believe!), and the maidens laughed and made mirth till it was time to get them to meat. Then they washed and sat them down to the feasting in fitting rank and order, 30 and Guinevere the queen, gaily clad, sat King Arthur lay at Camelot upon a on the high dais. Silken was her seat, Christmas-tide, with many a gallant lord with a fair canopy over her head, of and lovely lady, and all the noble brother- rich tapestries of Tars, embroidered, and hood of the Round Table. There they studded with costly gems; fair she was to held rich revels with gay talk and jest; 35 look upon, with her shining gray eyes, a

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