« AnteriorContinuar »
quently of the Thirty-nine, still in use. It is not meant to dispute the common statement, that the Formulary of Edward VI. owes much of its materials to the Confession of Augsburgh. But it is suggested, that it was probably taken more immediately from the Book of Articles just described, that this was the channel, through which the language of the German Confession was introduced into the English. At least such an inference is supported by the fact, that the expressions in Edward VI.'s Formulary, usually adduced to prove its connexion with the Confession of Augsburgh, are also found in this Book of Articles; while it contains others, which can be traced as far as the Book of Articles, but which will be sought for in vain in the Confession of Augsburgh. And to this Book, if it was in truth the result of the conferences of 1538, the framers of Edward VI.'s Articles would be likely to have recourse. They would naturally be anxious, in the execution of their undertaking, to meet, if possible, the views of their brethren on the continent, as well as of their countrymen at home; and they could scarcely pursue a surer method of attaining this object, than by borrowing from a form of doctrine already approved by both. Under these circumstances the reader probably will not be displeased at finding this Book of Articles printed in the Appendix a.
The failure of these negotiationsb with the German princes, was one of the heaviest blows sustained by the English Reformation during the reign of Henry VIII. It both removed the salutary restraint hitherto imposed on the King's caprices by an unwillingness to break with those who were embarked in the same cause, and it also enlisted
a Vol. iv. Appendix, No. XIII.
↳ Respecting some subsequent negotiations with the German princes, see Burnet, Hist. of Ref. vol. iii. pp. 277. 295. 311; Strype, Memorials, vol. i. pp. 339. 343. 367; State Papers, vol. i. p. 860.
his personal feelings on the side of the tenets he had so zealously pledged himself to defend. It thus probably contributed materially to the success of the great measure, by which, in the following year, the men of the Old Learning endeavoured to stifle the growth of the New, the memora
ble Act of the Six Articles. In this example of theological Act of the legislation, the dogmas lately upheld by Henry against the cles. 1539. objections of the Germans, occupied a conspicuous place. Cranmer however, timid as he is often represented to have been, now combated his Sovereign's errors in public, no less firmly and honestly than he had formerly done in private. Though desired by a Royal message to absent himself, he attended resolutely in his place in the House of Lords, and opposed the bill "with great reasons and authorities d." As
< The Six Articles were: "First, That in the most blessed Sacrament "of the Altar, by the strength and efficacy of Christ's mighty word, it being spoken by the priest, is present really, under the form of bread "and wine, the natural body and blood of our Saviour Jesu Christ, "conceived of the Virgin Mary; and that after the consecration there "remaineth no substance of bread or wine, nor any other substance "but the substance of Christ, God and man; Secondly, That commu"nion in both kinds is not necessary ad salutem by the law of God to "all persons; and that it is to be believed, and not doubted of, but "that in the flesh, under form of bread, is the very blood; and with "the blood, under form of wine, is the very flesh, as well apart as "though they were both together; Thirdly, That the priests after the "order of priesthood received as afore may not marry by the law of "God; Fourthly, That vows of chastity or widowhood by man or 66 woman, made to God advisedly, ought to be observed by the law of “God, and that it exempteth them from other liberties of Christian people, which without that they might enjoy; Fifthly, That it is "meet and necessary that private masses be continued and admitted "in this the King's English Church and Congregation, as whereby good "Christian people, ordering themselves accordingly, do receive both godly and goodly consolations and benefits, and it is agreeable to "God's law; Sixthly, That auricular confession is expedient and necessary to be retained and continued, used and frequented, in the "Church of God." Statutes of the Realm, 31 Hen. VIII. c. 14.
d Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vol. ii. pp. 443. 508; Burnet, Reformat. vol. i. pp. 515. 518. vol. iii. p. 272; Strype, Cranmer, p. 73.
the Speech delivered by him was afterwards, at the King's request, reduced to writing, its preservation might have been fairly anticipated. We learn too from an amusing story in Foxee, that though it encountered sundry perils in crossing the Thames, it was at last safely deposited in the hands of Crumwell. But the martyrologist failed in all his endeavours to recover it; nor can it be discovered among Crumwell's papers in the Chapter House at Westminster : so that there is reason to fear that it has utterly perished. The loss indeed may in some measure be supplied. Cranmer's opinions on all the points discussed are known, and several of them he has treated at length elsewhere. But still we are precluded from the opportunity of marking his skill, in tempering the production of "allegations and rea"sons so strong that they could not be refuted," with "such modesty and obedience in word towards his prince," that his "enterprize was not misliked" by him f.
For, notwithstanding his firmness in opposing the King, he yet, to the surprise both of his contemporaries and of posterity, retained the Royal favour. He was still, as before, constantly consulted on religious matters. Within a short period afterwards, he was applied to by Crumwell to correct a Primer 5, was employed to prefix a Prologue or Preface to the Bible, and was placed at the head of a Commission for drawing up a declaration of the principal articles of the Christian belief. The edition of the Bible for which he wrote a Preface, is that of 1540, known by the names of "Cranmer's" and "The Great Bible." The same
e Acts and Monuments, vol. ii. p. 508.
f Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vol. ii. p. 443.
8 See Letter CCXLIX. Strype conjectured that Cranmer "had a "considerable hand" in the Primer published in 1535, and attributed to Cuthbert Marshall. But the only reason assigned by him, is one which would appropriate to the Archbishop all the best works of that day, namely, that the book "had a strain of truth and serious piety " in it."
tions of the
titles have also been given, though, as it should seem, on less sufficient grounds, to a Bible of 1539: but neither of these was the first that the Archbishop was concerned in publishing. The translation and free circulation of the TranslaScriptures had long been objects of his anxiety and at- Bible. tention. As early as 1534 he prevailed on the Convocation to petition the King, "that the Bible might be trans"lated by some learned men of his Highness' nomination h." And he soon afterwards distributed portions of an old version of the New Testament to several of the leading clergy to be corrected. But Stokesley having positively refused his assistance, and being probably supported in his opposition by others of his party, the design seems to have miscarried. The whole Bible in English was however published by Coverdale in 1535*; and from its being dedicated to Henry VIII, is supposed by Lewis to have been circulated by his authority. But this appears to be a mistake; since, in June 1536, the Convocation again prayed the King, that he would indulge unto his subjects of the laity "the reading of the Bible in the English tongue, and that "a new translation of it might be forthwith made for that "end and purpose." And in 1537 Cranmer presented to his Majesty, through Crumwell, an English Bible “of a "new translation and a new print ;" and on permission being obtained for it to be "bought and sold within the "realm," he expressed his gratitude in terms far too warm to admit of the belief that the general use of the English Scriptures was already allowed m.
h Strype, Cranmer, p. 34.
i All the other divines, however, who were employed, completed their parts, and sent them to Lambeth on the day appointed. Strype, Cranmer, p. 48. Among the rest, Gardyner corrected the translation of St. Luke and St. John, "wherein," as he assured Crumwell, spent a great labour." State Papers, vol. i. p. 430.
k Lewis, Hist. of Engl. Translations of the Bible, p. 91.
1 Heylyn, in Lewis, Engl. Translations of the Bible, p. 102. m See Letters CXCI. CXCII.
Preface to the Bible.
The earliest translation therefore which received the public approbation of Henry VIII, may be concluded to be the Version recommended to him by the Archbishop in 1537". And this not only enjoyed a formal license, but was also farther sanctioned by Crumwell's Injunctions °, and by a Royal Declaration P. Yet it was not secured from attack. The edition contained a prologue and notes, which, since they reflected on some of the Romish errors, were complained of as "scandalous and defamatory;" and it was in consequence revised 9. This revision produced the two editions of 1539 and 1540; both, as has been said, known by the names of "Cranmer's" and "The Great Bible."
The latter of these, besides being superior in size and typography, had also the advantage of a Preface by Cranmer1, designed, as he himself expressed it, "both to encourage "slow readers, and also to stay the rash judgments of them "that read therein s." With this view, he on the one hand urged the expediency of allowing the Scriptures to be read in the vernacular tongue by "all sorts and kinds of people;” and on the other, he laid down some rules for preventing this liberty from being abused. "And to the intent that his "words might be the more regarded," he used, as far as possible, the reasonings of Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzen, rather than his own. Such a Preface was well calculated to disarm the hostility with which former translations had been pursued, and may perhaps have inclined the King, to whom it was submitted before publication', to bestow peculiar marks of favour on the edition which possessed it. For the title-page announced, that it was the Bible
n This is usually called " Matthew's Bible," being published in the name of Thomas Matthew; but it was in reality the work of Tyndale, Coverdale, and Rogers. See Letter CLXXXVIII.
• Burnet, Reformat. vol. i. App. b. iii. No. 11.