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is, that in my style I am written, " Totius Angliæ Primas," to the derogation and prejudice of the King's high power and authority, being Supreme Head of the Church. The other is, that his diocese (not past five years agon) was visited by my predecessor, and must from henceforth pay vol. xiv. p. the tenth part of the spiritualties, according to the Act granted in the last session of this Parliament; wherefore he thinketh, that his diocese should not be charged with my Visitation at this time.
First, as concerning my style, wherein I am named "To"tius Angliæ Primas," I suppose, that to make his cause good, (which else in deed were naught,) he doth mix it with the King's cause, (as ye know the man lacketh neither learning in the law, neither witty invention, ne craft to set forth his matters to the best) that he might appear not to maintain his own cause, but the King's; against whose Highness, he knoweth right well, that I will maintain no cause, but give place, and lay both my cause and myself at my prince's feet. But to be plain what I think of the Bishop of Winchester, I cannot persuade with my self that he so much tendereth the King's cause as he doth his own, that I should not visit him: and that appeareth by the very time. For if he cast no farther but the defence of the King's Grace's authority, or if he intended that at all, why moved he not the matter, before he received my monition for my Visitation; which was within four miles of Winchester delivered unto him the 24th day of April last, as he came up to the Court? Moreover, I do not a little marvel, why he should now find fault, rather than he did before k, when he took the Bishop of Rome as chief head: for though the Bishop of Rome was taken for Supreme Head, notwithstanding that, he had a great number of primates under him; and by having his primates under him, his supreme autho
i [Stat. 26 Hen. VIII. c. 3. See Letter CXLI.]
k["The Archbishop of Canterbury's title was in Convocation ordered "to be altered: instead of the title of 'legate of the apostolic see,' he "was to be designed ' metropolitan, and primate.' This last was one "of his ancient titles." Burnet, Ref. vol. iii. p. 199. See Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iii. p. 769, for the proceedings of the Convocation.]
rity was not less esteemed, but much the more. Why then may not the King's Highness, being Supreme Head, have primates under him, without any diminishing, but with the augmenting of his said supreme authority? And of this I doubt not at all, but that the Bishop of Winchester knoweth as well as any man living, that in case this said style or title, had been in any point impediment or hinderance to the Bishop of Rome's usurped authority, it would not have so long been unreformed as it hath been. For I doubt not but all the bishops of England would ever gladly have had the Archbishop's both authority and title taken away, that they might have been equal together; (which well appeareth by the many contentions against the Archbishops for jurisdiction, in the Court of Rome ;) which had been easily brought to pass, if the Bishops of Rome had thought the Archbishop's titles and styles to be any derogation to their supreme authority.
All this notwithstanding, if the bishops of this realm pass no more of their names, styles, and titles, than I do of mine, the King's Highness shall soon order the matter between us all. And if I saw that my style were against the King's authority, (whereunto I am specially sworn,) I would sue myself unto his Grace, that I might leave it; and so would have done before this time. For I pray God never be merciful unto me at the general judgment, if I perceive in my heart that I set more by any title, name, or style that I write, than I do by the paring of an apple, farther than it shall be to the setting forth of God's word and will. Yet I will not utterly excuse me herein; for God must be judge, who knoweth the bottom of my heart, and so do not I myself: but I speak forsomuch as I do feel in my heart, for many evil affections lie lurking there, and will not lightly be espied. But yet I would not gladly leave any just thing at the pleasure and suit of the Bishop of Winchester, he being none otherwise affectionate unto me than he is. Even at the beginning first of Christ's profession, Diotrephes desired gerere primatum in ecclesia, as saith St. John in his last Epistle and since, he hath had more successors
than all the Apostles had, of whom have come all these glorious titles, styles, and pomps into the Church. But I would, that I, and all my brethren the bishops, would leave all our styles, and write the style of our offices, calling ourselves "apostolos Jesu Christi:" so that we took not upon us the name vainly, but were so even in deed; so that we might order our diocese in such sort, that neither paper, parchment, lead, nor wax, but the very Christian conversation of the people might be the letters and seals of our offices, as the Corinthians were unto Paul, to whom he said, Literæ nostræ et signa apostolatûs nostri vos estis.
Now for the second. Where the Bishop of Winchester allegeth the visitation of my predecessor, and the tenth part now to be paid to the King; truth it is, that my predecessor visited the diocese of Winchester after the decease of my lord Cardinal, as he did all other dioceses (sede vacante); but else I think it was not visited by none of my predecessors this forty years. And notwithstanding that, he himself, not considering their charges at that time, charged them with a new visitation within less than half a year after; and that against all right, as Doctor Incent hath reported to my Chancellor; the clergy at that time! paying to the King half of their benefices in five years, which is the tenth part every year, as they paid before, and have paid since, and shall pay still for ever by the last Act. But I am very glad that he hath now some compassion of his diocese, although at that time he had very small, when he did visit them the same year that my predecessor did visit. And also other bishops, whose course is to visit this year, keep their visitation, (where I did visit the last year,) notwithstanding the tenth part to be paid to the King's Grace. Howbeit I do not so in Wynchester diocese ; for it is now the third year since that diocese was visited by any man, so that he hath the least cause to com
[The Convocation of 1523 granted to the King, mediam partem "valoris omnium fructuum, &c. . . . . . intra quinque annos levandam." But the Act contained a protestation, that this grant was new and unusual, occasioned by their special regard for his Majesty, and not to be drawn into a precedent. Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iii. p. 699.]
plain of any bishop, for it is longer since his diocese was visited than the other. Therefore where he layeth to aggravate the matter, the charges of the late Act granted, it is no more against me, than against all other bishops that do visit this year, nor maketh no more against me this year, than it made against me the last year, and shall do every year hereafter. For if they were true men, in accompting and paying the King's subsidy, they are no more charged by this new Act than they were for the space of ten years past, and shall be charged ever hereafter. And thus to conclude; if my said Lord of Wynchester's objections should be allowed this year, he might by such arguments both disallow all manner visitations that hath be done these ten years past, and that ever shall be done hereafter. Now I pray you, good Master Secretary, of your advice, whether I shall need to write unto the King's Highness herein. And thus our Lord have you ever in his preservation. At Otteforde, the xii. day of May. [1535.]
Your own ever assured,
CXLVIII. TO CRUMWEll.
Master Secretary, in most hearty wise I commend me unto MSS. you: and so send unto you here enclosed such thing as were Chapter House, noticed unto me this present Tuesdaym, which I cannot, ob- Westminserving my fidelity, keep undisclosed. Wherefore I require ster; Crumyou to open the same unto the King's Highness, to the in- respondtent his Grace's pleasure may be known herein. And as ginal. touching Sir John", the parish priest of Wytesham, he is in prison at Maidston, until such time as I shall hear word from you what shall be done in this behalf. Thus our Lord
m [The 25th of May 1535, fell on a Tuesday, and thus determines the date of this Letter.]
[John Hastings was Parson of Wyttrisham near Tenterden in 1535.
preserve you in prosperity. At Otteforde, the xxv. day of
Your assured ever,
To the Right Worshipful and my
singular good friend Master Se
CXLIX. To CRUMWELL.
Right Worshipful, in my most hearty wise I commend Chapter me unto you. And whereas this bearer, Mr. Roode of Westmin- Grayes Inn, hath a certain suit for title of land depending in the Chancery, wherein he hath divers that beareth against Corres- him, I desire you to be so good and favourable unto him at pondence. Original. my request and instance, that he may have right with expedition; wherein you shall do a right good deed, and have my hearty thanks for the same. Thus our Lord preserve [you]. At Otteforde, the xxvii. day of May.
Your own assured ever,
To my singular and especial friend
CL. TO CRUMWELLP.
Right Worshipful Master Secretary, in my right hearty wise I commend me to you. These shall be to advertise fol. 233. b. you, that this fourth day of June I have received the King's Original. Grace's most honourable letters, bearing date from Grenewiche, the third of the same, concerning such effects as be
[If this Letter is rightly placed in 1535, Crumwell was now Master of the Rolls, having succeeded Dr. Taylor in that office in Oct. 1534. He resigned it on being appointed Lord Privy Seal, the 2nd of July 1536.]
P [This appears to be the Letter referred to by Strype, Memorials, vol.