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States, because the democratic party supported the measure with the intention of feigning morality, while feeling convinced that the law would remain a dead letter. It was a mistake, and hence the Maine Liquor Law is now almost a nullity, even in the New England States.

It was the same with the Sunday laws, except that the latter had existed in the whole Union since the beginning, and were only tacitly ignored in the Catholic States of Maryland and Louisiana. These, too, since immigration has assumed large dimensions, only exist on paper in the Southern and Western States, and in districts inhabited by foreigners. In New England they exist in their former severity, but a relaxation must take place here shortly.

Finally, the Yankees are less fanatical in their nativist exertions than the opposing party. It is true that they are the inventors of the idea of attaching the right of voting and election to offices to a longer residence in the country. But had it not been for the help of those other opponents, the democrats in the other States, they could never have introduced the laws in question. Such is specially the case with the addition to the constitution, by which a five years' residence in the country qualifies for voting for officers of the Union, and a longer period is required for being elected a representative or a senator. Similar regulations were then introduced into the legislature of the separate States; but the democratic party everywhere had a hand in the matter, and thus only a portion of the blame which these exertions deserve falls on the New Englanders.

To summarise our previous remarks, the New Englanders are not free from fanaticism, but, on that very account, more tolerant than the average of the North Americans, and more especially than the population of the South, because they are better educated than the latter, and because the fanaticism is the practical pursuit of one-sided theoretical truths, while education is the harmony of all truths. The Yankees are, as a rule, rather one-sided, but less so than the other Americans. If the latter have a difficulty in being amiable, the Yankees at least contrive to be so to some



Women, too, in America are only in exceptional cases really amiable, although more beauty is met with among them than in Europe. They are too sensible and self-willed, and are deficient in that depth of humour and warmth of heart which distinguish European women, and they grow prematurely old. There are few American ladies who do not commence a very vigorous husband-hunt with their fifteenth and by the year, of thirty are matrons. Those who do not marry young, or have no fortune, generally look about for a profession before they are twenty years of age, and this is most commonly the case in New England, whose women are better educated and more independent than the rest, and where the female population is considerably in excess of the male. The professions chosen by Yankee women are only feminine in a case of necessity; they rarely go out to service as cooks, and working in factories, formerly so common, has now almost entirely ceased. On the other hand, teaching is very popular among them, and New England furnishes nearly the entire supply of governesses for the Union, both for elementary and secondary instruction. Most of the national schools have only one principal, but three or four assistant teachers, and elder women keep private schools, frequently of a considerable size, without any male assistance. Another profession

greatly sought by females is serving in shops. Furthermore, there is at Boston an academy under Mrs. Doctress Zakrzewska, from Berlin, which has already turned out several hundred she-doctors. There are also many authoresses, some printing-offices entirely managed by women, postmistresses, telegraph clerks of the other sex, hundreds of paid churchsingers, lecturesses, who also discuss politics, and even female clergymen. The sex is very strongly represented among the free-thinkers, abolitionists, and all societies of progress.

Ladies, too, have a great deal to say in the meetings and press organs of the woman's right party, which is almost entirely composed of Yankees, and whose fundamental idea is that woman ought to be equally privileged with man by the law, public opinion, and social fashions, as she only differs from him in a sexual respect. The conservative branch of this party demands that a woman should receive the same education as a man, that every profession should be open to her which her sex does not prohibit, and that she should have access to the voting-urn and every officer. Furthermore, women should no longer require a guardian, their testimony have the same value as a man's, and wives have a right to their own earnings and the disposal of their own fortune-claims in support of which it is urged that women in New England are better educated than men, as they attend school longer, that they understand parliamentary usages quite as well, possess quite as much practice and skill in oratory as the stronger sex, and already exert an indirect influence in politics. The radical branch go further, for they demand, in addition, "free love;" that is to say, the abolition of all laws against adultery, bigamy, polygamy, &c., but these claims have but few supporters

The ties of marriage and family are notoriously much looser in America than in Europe. Very frequently happen elopements by wives, their desertion by their husbands, and also voluntary separations of ill-matched couples. The conduct of husbands seems to the European observer cold and formal, and the connexion between children and their parents to each not at all affectionate. Very rarely do wives share their husbands' business cares, and nearly always their claims of finery and amusement are greater than their performances in the house. Their attention to the kitchen, and management of the house generally, are very trifling. The education of the children usually consists in letting them do exactly what they like. All this is true of the family life of the Yankees, though to a less extent than elsewhere in North America. In New England many housewives may be found who are good teachers, housekeepers, and cooks, who help their husband in his business, and even support their families by their own exertions. The farmers' wives are generally industrious and domestic, though they never help in the fields, and rarely in the garden and stable. Lastly, the universal American fashion for young, childless couples to live in boarding-houses, instead of starting a house of their own, is not nearly so frequent in New England as elsewhere. As a rule, we notice here more wedded affection and fidelity, more parental and childish love, more obedience, and more mutual attachment even between distant relatives, than is the case anywhere else in the Union. If the family life of the Yankees is not hearty, still it is quiet, peaceful, and comfortable.

This state of things is chiefly owing to the fact that the Yankee does

not visit grog-shops, is ignorant of clubs, casinos, resources, &c., but either spends the evening at home, or attends political, literary, or musical assemblies, to which he is generally accompanied by his wife. There are no village inns in New England, and the hotels in the towns are almost entirely frequented by immigrants. Freemasonry and odd-fellowship, which are more popular in America than in Europe, and take, to a certain extent, the place of public-houses, have found but few adherents proportionally in New England.

"It is impossible to travel through true Yankee settlements without feeling the heart expand," our author says, "where we see these hundreds of thousands of neat country and farm-houses with their splendid gardens, this equal division of comfort and the necessity of life, these contented, open, and sensible faces, these handsome forms, and the frequently charming features of the women, but nowhere beggars, nowhere rags, nowhere brutalised faces; where the finest and largest houses generally prove to be schools; where we notice every moment the unbounded traffic of beings and goods along the great commercial routes, the well-tilled fields, the beautiful cattle, the neat churches, the numerous railways: when we see all this remain the same for a long distance, we involuntarily exclaim, 'Here more human happiness and human dignity may be found than among any other equally large population in the whole world!'"


But the higher the elevation the deeper the fall, and thus the Yankee, when he degenerates, is a greater villain than any other American. The slave-holding New Englander is considered the most reckless among his fellows, and the pro-slavery party in Yankee-land displays the most repulsive zeal of all the politicians of this tendency. The captains who carried on the slave-trade with Africa were nearly all Yankees. officers of New English ships trading with the South are, nearly without an exception, pro-slavery democrats. The same is the case with nearly all the fishermen, who catch cod on the banks of Newfoundland, as well as with the great dealers in Boston, Newhaven, Portland, New Bedford, and other wealthy towns, who either carried on a profitable trade with the South, advanced money on plantations and slaves, or themselves held plantations which were managed for them. Lastly, the same is the case with the politicians and journalists, who have sold themselves to the democratic party. Webster, who, during a generation, was the adored opponent of slavery, was bought as its defender for seventy thousand dollars. James Brooks, the editor of the Newport Express, formerly a free-soiler, is now the most virulent foe of his ex-partisans: other instances are not rare, and hardly one can be mentioned in which the renegade was not a Yankee.

This curious fact is not sufficiently explained by saying that les extrêmes se touchant, the fault lies notably in the fact that American education is deficient in fundamental truth, and the national character in moral courage. The New Englander feels to a higher degree than other Americans a righteous wrath at wickedness, but he does not display it openly enough. Moreover, he is less passionate than his other countrymen, whence he is sarcastically called in the South the white-livered Yankee. Command of his feelings is taught him with his earliest years, and has grown a second nature through climate and manner of life; and in this way he has partially lost his horror of injustice. All Americans,

besides, are worshippers of authority; the Yankee least of all, but far too much for educated Englishmen. Washington and Jefferson are statesmanlike authorities, in other matters they refer to the constitution and the Bible; and as Washington and Jefferson's data, the constitution and the Bible can be employed on behalf of slavery, the transition from the free-soil party to the camp of the opponents can be easily represented as the result of better convictions.

We now come to the professional life of the Yankees. On the seaboard naturally lives a population devoted to navigation, commerce, and fishery. The competition of European sailors has, during the last ten years, driven the New Englander out of vessels sailing between Europe and America, and he is now only to be met with on the great lakes, and on board the East and West Indian and Californian liners. The inclination to a seafaring life is so great among the Yankees, that frequently farmers' sons from the interior, and educated young men, turn sailors, either with the intention of adhering to that calling, or else to employ it as a stepping-stone to mercantile avocations. At times, even these sailors are converted into authors; for instance, the celebrated lawyer and traveller Dana, and the well-known Olmstead, served several years "before the mast." The farmers on the sea-coast nearly all lead an amphibious life: they fish at the season when the great migration of sea-fish takes place to the bays and rivers of their country, and cultivate their fields in the interval. There are in all directions clubs, which seek amusement in trips to sea, fishing-parties, and rowing-matches; and even the ladies join these excursions.

The separate branches of this profession are mainly connected with special ports. The fishermen, who catch codfish on the Newfoundland banks, generally hail from Salem, Gloucester, Lynn, and Marblehead, in Massachusetts; the whalers, from New Bedford and Newbury port; while the fishermen of Maine generally pursue their avocation on the sandbanks off their coast. The oystery breeding-grounds and fisheries are confined to the bays of Connecticut and portions of Massachusetts Bay. New England is indebted to its fisheries for a great portion of its wealth. We need only look at the palatial country-houses of the whalers at New Bedford, the numerous fine buildings in Salem, Portland, Boston, and other fishing ports, and the general prosperity of the coast districts inhabited by fishermen, to be convinced of this fact.

A hundred branches of trade are also connected with navigation. Salem makes guano of the unsold fish and offal; Rockport ships the noble granite found in the neighbourhood, which is cut into slabs and blocks of every shape by very clever machinery; other places shell and pack in air-tight tin cases oysters for export to distant markets; others, again, build vessels and boats, burn lime out of oyster-shells, &c. In short, the Yankee is most inventive in connecting industrial operations with a seafaring life; and if he lose the sale of his productions at one spot, he very rapidly compensates himself by the discovery of some other source of profit.

Nearly three-fourths of the very large coasting-trade of America are in the hands of the New Englanders, because they possess most good harbours, most good sailors, the boldest and best-trained navigators, the best building wood, and a great variety of manufactures and productions

of the soil. Down as far as the Rio La Plata their clippers and schooners keep up the interchange of the produce of every zone, and in the same way a Yankee population carries on the coasting-trade on the shores of the Pacific from the Oregon downwards. When, in 1825, the port of New York was connected with the great northern lakes by the Erie Canal, the New England sea-traffic, whose ports could not be connected with the lakes in the same way, suffered from a serious competition which threatened its ruin, and in truth a great portion of the capital invested in New England was transferred to that cosmopolitan city. But the inventive spirit of the Yankees speedily made up for this loss. While New York undertook the trade with Eastern Europe, New England provided the communication between the North and South of the Western continent, by creating masses of goods to freight vessels and satisfy the requirements of every open market in the South. Thus sprang up the spinning and weaving factories of Massachusetts, in order to work up and pay for the cotton of the South, and at the same time obtain double profit. Thus sprang up the gigantic leather and shoe trade in the same State, which fetched its hides from the La Plata States, , and soon covered every foot in America, so that, in the present day, every sixth man is a shoemaker. Thus, too, sprang up the ice trade, which now supplies every hot country as far as China with the cooling luxury. Danbury applied itself to making hats wholesale; Waterbury to brass short goods; Bridgeport to carriage building and the manufacture of wooden clocks. Furthermore, we find in Yankee-land the furniture factories, which are carried on in such a way that the wood is roughly cut by cheap water and steampower in New Hampshire and Maine, and then conveyed to the workshops to be put together, varnished, and sent off. Then, again, there is the building wood trade, which cheaply supplies logs, planks, and beams at the place of growth, so that the house can be put on board vessels in port piecemeal. We have also to mention the factories for clothes, linen, schooling articles, turned goods, and pianofortes at Boston, of fire-arms at Springfield, Brottleborn, and Worcester, of half-woollen goods at Northampton, of filters and eask-staves at Burlington, of wooden toys and brooms in Maine, &c. The want of freight, the commercial spirit, and the inventive talent of the Yankees, created branches of trade long before there was that density of population which, in Europe, is considered necessary for the production of a great trade. And as the constant migration of the nation to the West and South kept wages up, the inventive spirit must find means to secure success by the most extensive use of machinery and the cleverest adaptation of the goods to the requirements of the consumers. And here is the place to speak of the protective duties, whose defenders are incorrectly sought among the Yankees. In this matter it is only true that the New England States formerly demanded protection for their trade, and did so at the time when they established it, in order to stand the competition of New York, from 1825 to 1840. Since then they no longer require this protection. Except in a few branches of trade, the movement for it is confined to Pennsylvania and New Jersey; and though, in the great electoral contest of 1860, New England advocated moderate protection, this was done from political reasons. In the first place, the Northern anti-slavery party had never yet been able to gain a victory over the Southern de

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