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tion did we form the first treaty? 10. What guarantees did France and the United States mutually make? 11. What was the leading object of the treaty?

1. What peculiar statements do you find in the treaty of peace of 1783? 2. Who were acknowledged independent? 3. Find out why the navigation of the Mississippi river was to remain forever free to both nations. 4. How did John Adams feel in regard to the fisheries. 5. Summarize his arguments. 6. Was he ready to abandon the fisheries? 7. Whom did Adams regard as the ablest of the commissioners? 8. What title had the French given him? 9. Did he believe he deserved it?

1. Why was Mr. Monroe told that France did not intend to receive at present another minister from the United States? 2. Find out who the Directory were. 3. Why the cry "millions for defense, not a cent for tribute"? 4. Why the name X. Y. Z. to the difficulty with France, 1798-'99? 5. How did "Hail Columbia" come to be written? 6. What do you think of the "poetry" of 1798? 7. What did the Americans evidently think of the French at this time? 8. Name the causes of the war of 1812. 9. What does Clay mean by British principle of impressment? 10. Could a person be a citizen of two states at once? 11. If so which

should protect him? 12. How did Clay feel in regard to war? 13. How about making peace in 1813?

1. What had Jackson done that made Clay so sarcastic in his speech of January 17, 1819? 2. Did Clay fear Jackson? 3. Where did he get his model for his sentence beginning "Remember that Greece had her Alexander," etc.? 4. Did Clay wish to purchase Florida in 1820? 5. Was there any other territory he preferred; why?

1. What principles did the Holy Allies hold? 2. Who were the Holy Allies? 3. Why had they formed the holy alliance? 4. What principles of government did the Holy Allies intend to destroy? 5. How did they regard the liberty of the press? 6. Who first set forth some of the ideas in the Monroe Doctrine? 7. What idea does Jefferson add? 8. What did Jefferson believe were the differences in government between Europe and America? 9. What doctrines does Monroe set forth in his message of December 2, 1823? 10. What did he mean by their "political system"? 11. How did President Cleveland interpret the Monroe Doctrine? 12. To what question did he apply it? 13. Is is a part of international law? 14. Write a paper on the growth of the Monroe Doctrine. 15. Is it applicable now to the Cuban issue? H. W. CALDWELL.

Some Number Lessons From a First Primary Grade


(A number of colored rectangles were scattered upon the table ready for use.)

Teacher-Find two rectangles that are equal. Tell about


Pupils "My rectangles are equal."


"The orange rectangle is equal to the blue one."
"Perry's red rectangle and my green one are
equal," etc.

Find a rectangle equal to this one."

Pupils "My rectangle is equal to yours."

"Your rectangle and mine are equal," etc. Teacher-"My rectangle is 7. What is yours?" Pupil-"If yours is 7, mine is 7."

Teacher-"My rectangle is not 7, it is 1. What is yours?" Pupil-"Then mine is 1."

Teacher-"Why is yours 1?"

Pupil-"Because my rectangle is equal to your rectangle.” Teacher "Watch! 1 is the ratio of my rectangle to your rectangle. Shut your eyes and think what I said. You may tell me what I said, Rector." Rector-1 is the ratio of my rectangle to your rectangle." Teacher-"What does that mean?"

Pupils "It means that they are equal."
Teacher—“Then what is meant by the ratio 1?”
Pupils "The ratio 1 means that they are equal.”
Teacher-"Find solids that have the ratio 1."

Pupils-"1 is the ratio of this cylinder to this one," etc. (Much drill is given on this. Care being taken that each child takes part.)

Teacher-"Find the ratio 2."

Pupil-"2 is the ratio of this block to this one."
Teacher-"How do you know it is?"

Pupil "Because the large block will make 2 of the small one."

Teacher "Can you see the ratio 1 in the same blocks?” Pupils-"1 is the ratio of the small one to of the large one."

"1 is the ratio of the large one to 2 of the small one," etc.

(The following rectangles had been drawn upon the blackboard.)

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These figures were placed on the board unlettered. The pupils were allowed to name them, thus giving to each an interest and idea of location that he would not otherwise have obtained.

The talk about the figures of the diagram brought out only such relations as were seen by the pupils without any suggestion or leading by the teacher.

Each child was then allowed to write all of the equations or ratios he could. (Be careful to make this part of the work a pleasure and privilege which you grant, not a piece of drudg ery which you force upon them.)

The following papers show what the pupils were prepared and glad to do:

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(The diagram given above was used for this lesson.)

Teacher-" Call d 2. Name the others, Edward." Edward-"If d is 2, o is 1, t is, g is 4, s is 1, x is 4, 1 is 6," etc.

Teacher-"If t is 3, what is the name of each of the others, Rosa ?"

Rosa-"If t is 3, o is 6, s is 6, x is 24, g is 24, i is 18, 1 is 36, n is 54, d is 12."

Teacher-"Call o 4, name the other units, Henry." Henry-"If o is 4, s is 4, d is 8, g is 16, t is 2, x is 16, i is 12, n is 36, 1 is 24."

(Observe how easily and in what an interesting way drill on the tables may be given.) Teacher-"Now we will erase the letters and give each figure Henry's name for it. You may write all the ratios and equations that you would like to tell me."

The following paper shows the result:
12 - of 16.
16 = 2 X 8.
369 X 4.

16 = 4 X 4. 24 of 36. 363 of 12.


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NE of the puzzling questions to the department of administration in the school systems of the country is that of deciding upon the kind and quality of work that is or that ought to be done in the public schools to receive the verdict of the great public that the "school work is efficient." The cry is constantly heard that this is an intensely practical age and the work of our schools must be shaped along the truly practical lines to be efficient. The whole trouble lies in determining the question "What is a practical education?" No two members of the board agree exactly upon this question. In fact, no two superintendents agree, and surely no two patrons agree. One has but to be a member of a board of education for a short time to find what a diversity of opinions the people have upon this one question. It also presents a very amusing side as you listen to the comparisons of "when I was a boy and went to school," etc. To listen is but to bring discouragement to every member of the board. To believe one-half of what you hear would place a very sad commentary on the school work of the country for the last twentyfive or thirty years. Are the school boards doing efficient work under the present system of schools so as to equip the boys and girls of today for the life work of their to-morrow? And we answer, yes. They may not be fitting for business according to some people's notion, but they are fitting for a broader work-good citizenship. There are other elements besides adding and multiplying; there is duty to city and state and nation. Questions of tremendous importance besides those that come between man and man in the every-day business affairs must be met. And the boards of education must provide the means of bringing these to the atten

tion of the school children of to-day during the character-forming period of their life. It is not a "fad," it is not a following after some man's theory, but it is the larger question that will meet them as they step forth into the greater realities of life. It is a developing in large quantities of the plain, practical common sense that tends to make practical men and women.


What Our Schools Produce

HE war cloud hangs very heavily over our land just now. There is hardly a rift in it. The spirit of patriotism is fully up to the age in which we live. Americanism is up to the top notch. It is not an empty sentiment. Why this spirit of universal loyalty? For complete answer you must go back to the great common school system of our land. To our shores there have come people of every nationality and social condition. Other nations have looked for the wrecking of our government because of this strange commingling of every condition of life and the large inflow by immigration. The bulwark of our safety has been the common schools of our country. What have they produced? They have been the guiding and directing power that has led all, of this strange commingling from all parts of the globe. into the highest form of American citizenship. The great common schools, by clinging absolutely everywhere to the English language have, with one sharp blow, cut out that which tended to anti-Americanism and silently molded the love of country. Has the common school system paid for itself? Read the record that will be made as the call for men goes out over the land. Listen to the prompt response. The nationality of the men will not be called into question, for the Americanism of them has been made secure by the influences that

have emanated from the great common schools of the land. The American citizenship of the next generation is being formed in the public schools of to-day. And this work will reign supreme and is self-adjusting no matter what come. That is what our schools produce, and it is worth every dollar that they have ever cost for just such a time as this.

The Country School

N the department of school administration one very important factor is often overlooked the country school. The reports

of the Commissioner of Education show a vast army of pupils in the schools outside of the cities and larger towns. It is a phase of school work of which the administrative part is very sadly neglected. In the selection of teachers it is not so much the ability of the individual as what is the least amount that we will have to pay for salary. The fact that the present system was in vogue ten or twenty years ago is still used as a good and sufficient argument to continue it. The writer recalls a conversation lately held with an officer in a country school in which improving methods and manner of doing our school work was under discussion. The conversation brought to a close with this emphatic statement: "Well, I am not in favor of any change in the methods of our school; they were good enough for me, and I think they will be good enough for my children. At least I do not want my children coming home and knowing more than I know about any subject." The stronger and more thorough the country school the better will the city and town school be



Why are the country schools so far behind? It comes largely from the officers, who, in their efforts to economize, secure for the schools so many young, inexperienced, and incompetent teachers. What is the result? The bright, active pupils leave the country school and seek their education in the towns or cities. The standard in the country schools will never be raised so long as this condition of affairs is allowed to exist. The time for the annual school election will soon be here. The people of the rural districts should strive to select the very best material for their directors; individuals who are unfriendly to good schools should not be put in as directors. The most

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HE general depression of business for the past few years and the failure to pay taxes promptly have placed many school boards in a most embarrassing position, viz., expenses exceeding the income. During the school year the cry is frequently heard "We must cut down our expenses." The time to prepare for retrenchment is now, during these closing months of the school year. Soon the estimates for another year must be made. The different committees ought to go over their work very carefully and itemize the needs for another year and thus see what must be done and at the same time see what can be passed over for the present. The estimating is usually done in the lump and when the board reorganizes various lines of work are started with no definite plan in view, and as the year rolls on the expenses are found to be growing very excessive, and immediately the suggestion is

made, “Well, we must cut the teachers' wages," when the whole difficulty could be remedied at this time in the year by a little careful plan ning and the carrying out of the plans.

Teachers' Salaries

THE drawing near of the close of another school year opens the question of teachers' salaries with nearly every board of education. A symposium on the question of teachers' salaries would lead to an interesting discussion in the question of school administration. If they are underpaid whose fault is it? The average individual answers very promptly, "It is the fault of the school board." I am writing from the standpoint of the board, and I ask, "Is it the fault of the board?" I answer, "No." The school boards of the country more thoroughly appreciate the work of the teacher than any other class of individuals. They have the very best opportunity to note the time the average teacher must devote to the work of preparation. They are in a position to know more, from the reports of their superintend ents and their own observation, of the qualifications of the teacher. As a proof of this fine discriminating power of the average board look at the host of good teachers employed. A great army of applicants, good and indifferent teachers, come before them. Generally speaking, the genuine good teachers are se lected, while the inefficient are left out. The board placed in charge of this work have just so much money year after year to do their work with. They are compelled to cut their pattern for wages largely after the amount of cloth given them. The matter of wages rests largely with the general public. They are the source of revenue. The board has to depend upon them for its funds. The public may not realize or appreciate all the difficulties in the way of the teacher or what it has cost to equip her for the work. If the public is at fault in these matters it strikes back with great force upon the teachers themselves, for they are the individuals that are forming the opinions of the thinkers of the next generation. It may not directly affect their salaries, but it will affect the salaries of some teachers in the next gen eration, when the boys and girls of to-day be come the men and women of to-morrow. Boards of education, with the superintendents, may have an important part to play in this

great work, because to them is given the work of setting the standard to which teachers shall attain before they can come upon the force in their city. A raising of the standard of quali fications would mean better teachers, and surely better teachers would mean better salaries. This, with the teacher striving to create a healthy sentiment in the right direction. would be a powerful factor in the advancing of salaries.

School Legislation

THE conventions will soon be called that will nominate the men for the next legislatures in many of our states. At every session of the legislature in all of the states attempts are made to secure much-needed reformation in the laws governing the schools of the state. Would it not be a part of wisdom to look a little after the men who are seeking the nomination as members of the legislature and to inquire what their attitude is in regard to the much-needed school laws? There is a general uplifting in the school work. There is a tendency for better schools. A new era seems to be dawning for more advance. In many of the states it cannot be met by the present laws. It may not mean a single dollar increase in taxation or expenditure of school funds. Indeed, with some of the propositions that are now pressing themselves to the front, it will mean actually less money for better results. A new condition confronts us everywhere. There is an increased enrollment in the great common-people's college, the high school. In the United States in the past five years the enrollment in this one line of school work has doubled, and yet from the report of the Commissioner of Education we glean that fully one-half of the school population are deprived of this wonderful boon unless they pay extra tuition. Surely some change must be made in our laws to meet this new problem.

Seventy years ago Dabol's old rule of three was sufficient to solve all of the problems that presented themselves at that time. To-day the tremendous problems of commercial and industrial education demands something stronger and mightier than that old rule. This problem just referred to is one of the intricate questions for the school people of to-day to solve. The schools must meet it and new legislation must be had.

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